Friday, May 15, 2020

Pros And Cons Of Lowering The Drinking Age - 1822 Words

Although not always the case, the legal drinking age in the United States is 21 years old. However, the minimum legal drinking age drastically varies across the rest of the globe, with some countries allowing legal alcohol consumption before individuals have even turned 18 years old. Since the legal drinking age was changed to 21 years, it has been a controversial issue in the United States. For decades, there have been debates on the pros and cons of lowering the legal age. In fact, there have even been brief periods of time in history where the age has been lowered. Nonetheless, these trial periods have often failed and have only further displayed the need for the minimum legal drinking age to be kept at 21 years. Arguments from both†¦show more content†¦These proponent and opponent groups of Americans are normally made up based on their political ideology, personal drinking habits, and education level (Jones, 2014). These statistics clearly show that a majority of the nat ion, regardless of political, personal, and educational reasons, agree with the current minimum legal drinking age law and any evidence that backs up the law. However, in other countries the issue is not always as clear. For example, in the United Kingdom the legal purchasing age is 18, but adolescents aged 16-17 are able to drink certain types of alcohol with their meals if it is bought by an adult (Healey, Rahman, Faizai, Kinderman, 2014). The issue here becomes whether this can cause confusion of when drinking is acceptable among adolescents and young adults, possibly leading to elevated levels of underage drinking. This could also lead to questioning of the term adult. An 18-year-old is considered an adult and is able to buy alcohol. By these standards, this could mean that an 18-year-old could potentially buy alcohol for minors, which would be concerning. Perhaps this is one of the reasons the UK reported higher intoxication rates, intoxication in the last 30-days, and intoxic ation before the age of 13 when compared to the United States (Healey, Rahman, Faizai, Show MoreRelatedChallenging The Legal Drinking Age1689 Words   |  7 PagesMackenzie Schultz Mrs. Hamilton AP English Language 25 July 2014 Challenging the Legal Drinking Age The Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) has been challenged since the passing of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 that raised the drinking age to twenty-one in all fifty states (Ogilvie). Advocates for lowering the MLDA to eighteen years of age argue that this change will eliminate the thrill of breaking the law for young adults entering college and boost the national economy. SupportersRead MoreDrinking At 18 Legal Or Not949 Words   |  4 PagesDrinking at 18 legal or not Changing the drinking age from 21 to 18 has been a controversial argument for many years now, Even though every states legal drinking age is 21 there is some states that make certain exceptions in some situations. There is many pros and cons to changing this such as a good thing is some 18 year olds may not binge drink as they do when they turn 21. If 18-20 year olds are allowed to drink in supervised locations such as bars and restaurants it would be a much safer environmentRead MoreLowering The Drinking Age From 21 Essay1214 Words   |  5 PagesUnderage drinking. It’s all the rage in this generation. Youths everywhere are subjecting themselves to excessive amounts of alcohol at illegal ages, and the consequences are evident all around us. Every year over 5,000 kids under the age of 21 die from alcohol abuse, 1 in 5 10th graders will resort to binge drinking, and alcohol continues to damage developing teen brains (Let’s Stop Teen Drinking Tragedies). While they ma y not be seen in night clubs in bars, people between the ages of 18 and 21Read MoreIncrease in the Legal Drinking Age870 Words   |  3 PagesAnother reason why the legal drinking age was changed is because of the fact that the adolescent brain is not fully developed; it is supposed that â€Å"excessive alcohol intake causes brain damage† in teens. However, in order for damage to occur, the drinking has to be extremely excessive. If there are only a few of these extreme bingeing â€Å"episodes,† they do no harm to the adolescent brain (Minimum Drinking Age). David J. Hanson, a professor at the University of New York at Potsdam, states, â€Å"There’sRead MoreEssay on Federal Highway Policy714 Words   |  3 PagesPolicy: Minimum Legal Drinking Age Ashley Miller American National Government Mark Ladd February 17, 2014 The Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) laws were created in the US after the Prohibition in 1933. AT this time, many states set the MLDA at 21. When the voting age was lowered to 18 in 1971, many states also lowered their drinking age to 18 or 19 (Fell, 2009). After the lowering, the amount of alcohol related accidents involving young adults age 18 to 20 had dramaticallyRead MoreLowering the Drinking Age1223 Words   |  5 Pagesâ€Å"What we’re doing now to prevent underage drinking isn’t working; it’s time to try something else.† Although many people argue that the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1964, which lowed the drinking age from eighteen to twenty one, was a good idea. David J Hanson a professor in the State University of New York believed that something needs to be done to make the United States a safer place to live. Is it fair that people in the United States can serve in the military, vote in elections, serveRead MoreLowering The Drinkin g Age From Twenty857 Words   |  4 PagesAt eighteen years of age a teenager becomes an adult. They can choose to move out of their parents home, vote, marry, joining the military and buy tobacco and lottery tickets, but it isn’t illegal to purchase alcohol. However, in twenty-nine states it is legal to consume alcohol at eighteen, but not to purchase alcohol. Becoming an adult has many responsibilities; therefore, citizens should be able to drink at eighteen. The United States should lower the drinking age from twenty-one to eighteen becauseRead MoreThe Smoking Age Should Be Legal Drinking Age1517 Words   |  7 Pagesrequiring you to be over the age of 21 to consume alcoholic beverages. This law has proved itself by saving many lives and overall just having a positive outcome in the community. People say that no matter what the age limit is kids will still drink? I completely disagree, believe it or not there’s endless ways in which it can be prevented while the d rinking age remains 21. Parents make a big difference and can prevent this from happening and I have to agree 100% that the drinking age has saved hundreds ofRead MoreControversial Analysis: Drinking Age1278 Words   |  6 PagesCarolina Quiroga April 02, 2012 Leslie Jones English 102 The Drinking Age and Young Adults. Because underage drinking is a major problem for young adults, the drinking age has become a very controversial issue. In the 1990s, the drinking age was 18, but it was changed to 21 in 1984. The Federal Government informed states to choose between raising the drinking age to 21 or foregoing highway funding. This decision obviously affected 18 to 20 year olds who could no longer buy alcoholic beveragesRead MoreBang! A Soldier Just Got Shot, And Most Likely P Never1676 Words   |  7 Pagesfreedom of drinking? The drinking age was moved to the age of 21 in 1984 due to many drunk drivers. Now I think everyone gets the point not to drink and drive due to the serious consequences. If we lowered the drinking age underage drinking wouldn’t be as big. More money for our government will be made, therefore we can buy and reproduce more goods. The drinking age should be lowered, because it will stop binge drinking, you are considered an adult at age 18, and it helps colleges. Binge Drinking is when

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Radical And The Republican - 1235 Words

The Radical and The Republican, by James Oakes In the book, The Radical and the Republican, was a very interesting, informative read. It made me actually picture myself during that era, and feel how the main people in the book were so passionate about slavery. It focused on the attitudes and the political stand points of Abraham Lincoln, and Frederick Douglass, towards the issue on slavery and the emancipation of slaves. James Oake’s portrayal of both men was extremely positive. He went into detail about their politics and their reasons behind their public positions, regarding slavery. â€Å"Their minds worked differently. Though they both hated slavery, they both hated it in different ways and not always for the same reasons. Their†¦show more content†¦Even with their different reasons, â€Å"by 1858 Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass were saying the same thing, preaching the same antislavery politics. Liberty or Slavery must become law of the Land† (Ibid., p.5) A major difference betwe en Lincoln and Douglass were their views on the Constitution. Douglass changed his views about the Constitution; at one point he believed it was a proslavery document and then he changed his opinion to believe it was an anti-slavery document. Lincoln never changed his opinions about the Constitution. â€Å"Lincoln saw the Constitution as neither a clarion call to abolition on a proslavery scandal. It was a compromise. It recognized slavery, but only out of necessity and only three times†. (Ibid., p.63) Lincoln believed in the founding fathers and believed that they had envisioned and end to slavery in the future of the then-fledgling United States. He also believed they had to make concessions to allow for the formation of the Union. â€Å"Unlike Frederick Douglass, Lincoln did not claim those concessions had not been made. He accepted them, but that didn’t mean he liked them.† (Ibid., p 63) Another major difference between Lincoln and Douglass was in the idea of colonization. Lincoln believed in setting colonies with emancipated slaves in Central America. â€Å"He always supported colonization, and in August ofShow MoreRelatedThe Radical And The Republican Essay960 Words   |  4 Pagesthe book, The Radical and the Republican: Fredrick Douglass, Abraham Lincoln, and the triumph of Antislavery Politics, written by James Oakes connected the politics and the point of views of both Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass towards the issue of slavery and the emancipation of slaves. Oakes interpretations of both men were very detailed in showing their reason and politics behind their positions they served in society on the topic of slavery. Abraham Lincoln, the republican, and FredrickRead MoreThe Radical And The Republican996 Words   |  4 Pages The Radical and the Republican Paper The Radical and the Republican by author James Oakes is an account of two idols that conquest over struggle during a time of great crisis, solidified in a specialist historian’s expertise of various writings on abolitionism, Abraham Lincoln, and the Civil War era. While Oakes is vigilant to dodge the evident dangers of hero-worship, his compassion for both Lincoln and Douglass is evident throughout. Oakes received the Lincoln Prize for his work on this manuscriptRead MoreThe Radical and the Republican Essay examples1771 Words   |  8 PagesYour Name Your Teacher Your Class Due Date The Radical and the Republican This book was a view on slavery between during the Civil War. It shows the different views of the Republican Party of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. These two had very different views at first, but then learned to adapt to each other and eventually became great friends. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery. He had a strong hatred toward slavery; not just because he was a slave, but because he thoughtRead MoreAbraham Lincoln vs the Radical Republicans Essay2594 Words   |  11 Pagespersonalities within his political cabinet lead to both the abolition of slavery and victory of the Civil War and how did it contrast with the principles of Radical Republicans? Table of Contents: INTRODUCTION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..3 HISTORICAL CONTEXT†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.3 LINCOLN: GRADUAL EMANCIPATOR†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦......†¦.6 RADICAL REPUBLICANS: SWIFT EMANCIPATORS†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦9 CONCLUSION†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. WORKS CITED†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. Read MoreFollowing Lincolns death (?), Radical Republicans took control of Congress and attempted to create600 Words   |  3 Pages(?), Radical Republicans took control of Congress and attempted to create a social and constitutional revolution. To do so, they amended the Constitution and imposed the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments. Although the purpose of these amendments was to create black equality, the South resisted acceptance of these changes so that this could not be possible. In turn, there really were not any social developments even though the constitution had been changed. Lincoln was a moderate Republican and hadRead MoreHow Did The Radical Republican s Rise For The Failure Of The Post Civil War Reconstruction?1619 Words   |  7 Pagesinvestigation will explore the question: How did the Radical Republican’s rise to power contribute to the failure of the post-civil war reconstruction? The time between 1863, when Lincoln passed the ten percent act, until the year 1877, when reconstruction was officially ended, will be evaluated with information provided by the sources. The investigation will specifically look to how the Lincoln assassination allowed for the rise in the Radical Republican Party from 1866 to 1868 and the party’s effectRead MoreThe Kansas- Nebraska Act Essay1085 Words   |  5 PagesWhigs, Anti- Nebraska Democrats, Nativist groups and Abolitionists. These groups created the Republican Party. The Republican Party unlike parties before it was a purely sectional party. The Republican Party made its first real stand during th e election of 1856. During this election the Republican Party came close to winning the election by only taking the Northern states, this cemented the role of Republican Party as the successor of the Whig party and opponents to the Democrats. The slogan â€Å"FreeRead MoreTurning Points in History 1900s1080 Words   |  5 Pagesowner. It is believed that President Lincoln would have been able to control the Radical Republicans. Because Andrew Jackson was a southerner the Radical Republicans hated him before he took office. Politics where affected by the Assassination of Lincoln because the Radical Republicans led congress. Due to the hold that the Radical Republicans had on congress they were able to pass several new laws. The Radical Republicans almost immediately passed the 13th Amendment and the 14th Amendment. (The SocialRead MoreReconstruction : Johnson s Plans And His Battles With Congress1576 Words   |  7 Pages Reconstruction Johnson’s Plans and His Battles With Congress: Republican Abraham Lincoln chose Democratic Senator from Tennessee, in 1864, to be his vice presidential candidate. Abraham Lincoln was on the lookout for Southern support. He was hoping that choosing Johnson, would appeal the Southerners who never planned on leaving the union. Johnson also grew up in poverty. He hadn’t learned to write until he was around 20yrs old. He rose up to political power as a â€Å"backer† of a small farmer. InRead MoreDiffering Views on Reconstruction1090 Words   |  5 Pagespositions on Reconstruction emerged. These were divided into three opposing camps: Conservatives (democrats), Moderates, and Radicals. The Conservatives believed the South should be readmitted into the Union as soon as possible, but the Radicals and Moderates believed there should be consequences for succeeding. br brThe question of what those consequences should be separated Radical from Moderate. The answer to this question was as related to how important each side b elieved it was to enfranchise African

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Opening Organic Coffee Shops In Australia

Question: Writereport to describe a business research proposal on the topic of opening organic coffee shops in Australia. Answer: Opening Organic Coffee Shops In Australia Introduction The report describes a business research proposal on the topic of opening organic coffee shops in Australia. The business research encourages the growth and development of organic coffee shops throughout the country of Australia. There are a large number of people all over the world who prefers coffee more than their preference for tea or other beverages. The lovers of the coffee all over the world love to experiment with the different flavours of coffee. Coffees with different aromas and flavours are available all over the world. Coffees from different origins are also available in different parts of the world ( 2016). There are two types of coffee that are available in the markets all over the world. One is the organic coffee and the other one is the conventional coffee. If one considers the commodities that are most widely traded all over the world, coffee holds the highest position. The different coffee markets of the world produce over twelve billion pounds of coffee each year (Morris et al. 2013). This research proposal deals with the prospective and consequences of opening organic coffee shops in the country of Australia. The research proposal highlights the need for doing so. Literature review Since coffee is one such commodity that people all over the world uses widely, scholars and researchers have conducted extensive studies on the benefits and drawbacks of consumption of coffee. Researchers all over the world have also thrown light on the different flavours and types of coffee. The studies depict that there is high demand for coffee all over the world. So it is not a very easy task for the planters and producers of coffee to meet the needs of consumption of coffee. As time has gone by, the coffee planters have resorted to new and improved methods and techniques of coffee plantations all over the world. The new technology and methods of coffee plantations have affected the health of the people all over the world as well as that of the environment (Gitter et al. 2012). The new and improved methods of production of coffee gives rise to the conventional non organic variety of coffee that people all over the world uses largely. The studies of the researchers and scholars show that there is a lot of difference between the conventional coffees that people all over the world consumes and the organic coffee. Research works have proved the fact the conventional coffee is one such commodity that is treated heavily with chemicals. Coffee planters all over the world apply different types of chemicals like fungicides, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers to increase the production of coffee. The application of all the chemicals adversely affects the taste and quality of the coffee that people throughout the world consumes. This hampers the health of the consumers of coffee. This also degrades the environment. The coffee planters also harm themselves while spraying these chemicals to the coffee fields. Moreover, the use of such chemicals causes air, soil and water pollution (Morris et al. 2013). The erroneous and harmful techniques of the production of the conventional coffee drive the coffee producers all over the world to focus on the production of organic coffee. The articles and journals on organic coffee draw the attention of the people all over the world to the benefits that consumption of organic coffee has on the consumers. While growing organic coffee, the planters do not have to take help of the synthetic fertilisers to improve the production of organic coffee. The coffee planters all over the world grow the organic coffee by using organic fertilisers only. Some of these organic fertilizers include the compost, chicken manure or coffee pulp (Ferreira et al. 2013). Hence one can observe that the plantations of organic coffee do not have any negative impact on the environment. The studies on the organic coffee give the information that the organic coffee beans contain healthy antioxidants that help to improve the health of the people (Souza et al. 2015). The above discussion emphasizes on the fact that the government of different countries and also the coffee businessmen should encourage the coffee planter to produce more organic coffee than the conventional coffee. Australia is the land of rich natural resources. Nature has blessed the country with different natural resources that aid the production of organic coffee throughout the country. The coffee planters of Australia should utilize these natural resources to produce organic coffee, keeping in mind the health of the environment and the coffee consumers (do Nascimento et al. 2014). As a result the country can witness the opening of more outlets of the organic coffee shops in different places and districts of Australia. The government of the country should also encourage the opening of organic coffee shops all over the country. Research questions Based on the above discussion and considering the literature review of the topic of the research, the researcher can frame some research questions that would guide the researcher throughout the study. Some of the research questions that the researcher can frame from the above discussion are the following: Why, according to the consumers, is it necessary that the country should have more organic coffee shops? What are the factors that would help the shop owners to open outlets for organic coffee? How will the opening of organic coffee shops affect the profit generated by the coffee producing companies? These are some of the questions which the researcher wishes to answer by conducting the research. Description of the research methodology The researcher would complete the research process by following the few simple steps. It is necessary for the researcher to frame the steps which he would follow throughout the course of study. The author describes the following steps of the research methodology: Selection of the research topic: First, the researcher would select the research topic. Here, the topic of the research is the opening of organic coffee shops in Australia. Literature review: The researcher makes a review of some of the articles and journals based on the topic of the research. The literature review enables the researcher to get the idea of the background of the topic in question. The researcher also gathers secondary data on the topic from the literature review of the topic. Gantt chart: The researcher prepares a Gantt chart of the research process. The Gantt chart describes the duration of time that the researcher would take to complete different steps of the research process. Data collection: To conduct the research, the researcher would collect both primary as well as secondary data from different sources. The sources can be the websites of some of the coffee producing companies of Australia. The researcher also collects data by directly interviewing the coffee planters, the managers of the coffee shops and the consumers of coffee. Data analysis: The researcher analyses the data collected from the subjects by qualitative data analysis techniques. Conclusion and reporting: Finally, the researcher explains the findings and outcomes of the exploration. The researcher presents the outcomes of his research in a way that would be useful for both the owners of the coffee shops as well as the coffee lovers of the country (Mackey and Gass 2015). Gantt chart The researcher represents the important milestones of his study in a Gantt chart. The Gantt chart displays the duration that the researcher would require to make the literature review of the topic, to collect the data and to analyse it and to make the final report of the research. Task Start date Duration End date Literature Review 17th June 15.00 2nd July Data Collection 3rd July 60.00 3rd Sept Data Analysis 4th Sept 55.00 31st Oct Final Report Submission 1st Nov 30.00 30th Nov Description of the research process One of the main steps to conduct the research is to collect data from relevant sources. The researcher first applies a probability sampling method to select the sample from where the researcher would collect the data. The researcher would select some of the coffee shops in Australia to conduct the interview. The researcher would collect the data with the help of a questionnaire. The researcher interrogates with the owners and managers of these coffee shops and notes their views on some of the questions mentioned in the questionnaire. The researcher collects secondary data also. Then the analyst analyses the data collected by suitable data analysis techniques. The data analysis produces the results of the research (Flick 2015). The experimenter discusses the outcomes that he expects from the research. Description of the data collection and data analysis techniques The researcher collects the primary data with the help of the questionnaire. The questionnaire for this study contains open ended questions that are not very well structured. Some of the questions that the questionnaire contains may pertain to the views of the customers or the shop owners regarding the opening of the organic coffee shops in the country of Australia. The questions in the questionnaire may also want to know why the respondents feel that there is a need to open organic coffee shops in different places of the country. The respondents would mark their choices on a scale containing five parameters. The five different parameters of the marking scale ranges from the option of strongly agree to strongly disagree. The respondents have the freedom to mark any answer of their choice anonymously. The questionnaires are so designed that the identity of the respondents would not be disclosed at any point of the study (Lewis 2015). After collecting the information the researcher cleanses and validates the data. The researcher discards any erroneous or missing values from the data that is given by the respondents. The researcher treats the data collected from secondary sources also in the same way. Qualitative data analysis method consists of a range of procedures that helps to explain and understand the data and interpret the results in an efficient manner (Taylor et al. 2015). Qualitative analysis helps to explain the symbolic content and meaning of the data. There are two approaches in the qualitative data analysis that the researcher uses the inductive approach and the deductive approach (Grbich 2012). This completes the data analysis procedure of the research. Expected research outcomes The researcher expects that the research would have a positive impact on the consumers of coffee as well as the coffee shop owners. The results of the research would help the researcher find the answers to the research topics. The people involved in the business for producing coffee would get an idea about the importance of production of organic coffee over conventional coffee. The coffee shop owners would also get an idea of what the customer wants from the research. Conclusion: The business research proposal highlights the importance of organic coffee over the conventional coffee. Seeing the results of the research, one can easily conclude that the country Australia should encourage the opening of more organic coffee shops as organic coffee has a lot more advantages over the conventional coffee that people all over the world widely consumes. References: do Nascimento, L.M., Spehar, C.R. and Sandri, D., 2014. Productivity of organic coffee orchard in the Brazilian savannah after prunning and grown under different water regimes.Coffee Science,9(3), pp.354-365. (2016). Organic vs. Conventional Coffee | Equal Exchange. Ferreira, F.Z., Silveira, L.C.P. and Haro, M.M., 2013. Families of hymenopteran parasitoids in organic coffee cultivation in Santo Antonio do Amparo, MG, Brazil.Coffee Science,8(1), pp.1-5. Flick, U., 2015.Introducing research methodology: A beginner's guide to doing a research project. Sage. Gitter, S.R., Weber, J.G., Barham, B.L., Callenes, M. and Valentine, J.L., 2012. Fair trade-organic coffee cooperatives, migration, and secondary schooling in Southern Mexico.Journal of Development Studies,48(3), pp.445-463. Grbich, C., 2012.Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. Sage. Lewis, S., 2015. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.Health promotion practice, p.1524839915580941. Mackey, A. and Gass, S.M., 2015.Second language research: Methodology and design. Routledge. Morris, K.S., Mendez, V.E. and Olson, M.B., 2013. Los meses flacos: seasonal food insecurity in a Salvadoran organic coffee cooperative.The Journal of Peasant Studies,40(2), pp.423-446. Morris, K.S., Mendez, V.E., Lovell, S.T. and Olson, M., 2013. Conventional food plot management in an organic coffee cooperative: explaining the paradox.Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems,37(7), pp.762-787. Souza, A.G.C., Maffia, L.A., Silva, F.F., Mizubuti, E.S.G. and Teixeira, H., 2015. A time series analysis of brown eye spot progress in conventional and organic coffee production systems.Plant Pathology,64(1), pp.157-166. Taylor, S.J., Bogdan, R. and DeVault, M., 2015.Introduction to qualitative research methods: A guidebook and resource. John Wiley Sons.

Monday, April 13, 2020

I Know Why Caged Bird Sings Essays - I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings

I Know Why Caged Bird Sings I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography of the life of Maya Angelou. The book begins with the divorce of her parents, and Maya and her brother Bailey moving from St. Louis to Stamps, Arkansas, where their grandmother lives. Maya deals with sudden, unexpected separation from stability and security, sexual abuse, rape, racism, poverty, death, abandonment, solitude, and uncertainty all before the age of sixteen. After leaving the safety and comfort of life with her grandmother in Stamps, Arkansas, Maya and her older brother Bailey travel to St. Louis to live with their mother Vivian. After almost a year of not adjusting to city life, Maya becomes the victim of a savage rape, by her mother's boyfriend. It leaves her so traumatized that she stops speaking and slowly recovers after returning to Stamps to the love and care of Momma. After proudly graduating from junior high school and entering their teenage years, Maya and Bailey again go to live with their mother. She moves to San Francisco, where Maya feels more alone and insecure than ever. She has to come to terms with the feelings and issues of being a teenager, getting a job, finishing school, watching her brother pull away to find freedom, and an unexpected pregnancy. Eventually she overcomes all the cards stacked against her to give birth to a healthy son. Throughout I Know Why The Caged Bird Sings, the author lives in several towns and cities, all of which effect her differently. The fast-paced, noisy life Maya finds in St. Louis is totally foreign to her, and seems worlds away from the quiet, secure life she had in Stamps with Momma. Maya thrives and seems happiest and most comfortable in Stamps, with Momma, Bailey, and Uncle Willie. From the time that she was three until she was seven. The rural, poor southern town of Stamps was the only home that Maya knew. Maya was inspired to write her autobiography after meeting novelist James Baldwin, editor Robert Loomis, and cartoonist Jules Feiffer. She booked a downtown hotel room and wrote from six till noon on weekdays. She did this for six months, and by 1970 she had a manuscript for publication. After reading I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings, I would like to say that it is a very interesting look into a turbulent life of a young troubled girl. I think that it was entertaining, but at the same time there were some serious issues dealt with by the author. It helped me realize how hard life can be for some people. I would strongly recommend this book to any mature reader. The author easily fulfills the goal of the novel. I think that her goal was to successfully give a feeling of what her life was like as she grew up. She deals with sexual abuse, rape, racism, poverty, death, abandonment, solitude and uncertainty, all before she was sixteen. The detailed accounts of the events in her life made me feel as if I was growing up along side of her. I could see her pain and anguish throughout her childhood years. I was affected most when she gave her feelings after she was raped. She wrote of the guilt and her fears of how the rape was her fault. Maya says, "I had sold myself to the Devil and there could be no escape. The only thing I could do was to stop talking to people other than Bailey...When I refused to be the child they knew and accepted me to be, I was called impudent and my muteness sullenness...The bareness of Stamps was exactly what I wanted, without will or consciousness. After St. Louis, with its noise and activity, its trucks and buses, and loud family gatherings, I welcomed the obscure lanes and lonely bungalows set back deep in dirt yards." This account of Maya's is an example of how she fulfills her goal of making the reader feel as if they were with her as she grew up. Angelou's writing style is descriptive and colorful; she uses many literary devices to emphasize scenes and conversations that show the development of her character. For example: Characterization "...when she was called upon to sing, she seemed to pull out plugs from behind her jaws and the huge, almost rough sound would pour over the listeners and throb in the air." Symbolism "Just my breath, carrying my words out, might poison people and they'd curl up and die like the black

Wednesday, March 11, 2020

Free Essays on Primate Evolution

Human evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo Sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. It gives idea of human evolution during past 4 million to 5 million years. From a genome view point, the difference between modern man and the modern apes is only about 2 percent. From a physical viewpoint the greatest difference is in locomotion. The human walks upright, it is generally thought that this came about when the ancient hominid adopted the edge of the forest and plain and adapted to a life under the trees as opposed to in them. Fossil evidence shows that is bipedal adaptation was completed quite early, perhaps as early as four million years ago, long before we do today. Facial feature changes toward the modern appearance came much later. The facial characteristics, of modern man are about 100,000 years old. The faces of earlier hominid were much more apelike. Any mutation must be applied to a DNA coding that already exists. It can not be applied to coding that does not exist. is this a silly statement? No at all. It leads to the way that evolution changes an organism. Mutations a real ways applied to the existing DNA coding. Evolution makes something new out of something that already exists. If a bear becomes distressed in a given environment, it does not sprout wings and fly. Instead, such things as longer legs or claws will be tested. Also, evolution often does not fix the thing that causes a problem, it patches the problem by doing something unrelated. If an organism suffers a mutation that shortens its life so that it has difficulty rearing its children to childbearing age, that mutation will started being culled from the gene pool. Before that mutaion has been completely removed from the gene pool, another mutation may occur which shortens, the ge! station per... Free Essays on Primate Evolution Free Essays on Primate Evolution Human evolution, the biological and cultural development of the species Homo Sapiens, or human beings. A large number of fossil bones and teeth have been found at various places throughout Africa, Europe, and Asia. It gives idea of human evolution during past 4 million to 5 million years. From a genome view point, the difference between modern man and the modern apes is only about 2 percent. From a physical viewpoint the greatest difference is in locomotion. The human walks upright, it is generally thought that this came about when the ancient hominid adopted the edge of the forest and plain and adapted to a life under the trees as opposed to in them. Fossil evidence shows that is bipedal adaptation was completed quite early, perhaps as early as four million years ago, long before we do today. Facial feature changes toward the modern appearance came much later. The facial characteristics, of modern man are about 100,000 years old. The faces of earlier hominid were much more apelike. Any mutation must be applied to a DNA coding that already exists. It can not be applied to coding that does not exist. is this a silly statement? No at all. It leads to the way that evolution changes an organism. Mutations a real ways applied to the existing DNA coding. Evolution makes something new out of something that already exists. If a bear becomes distressed in a given environment, it does not sprout wings and fly. Instead, such things as longer legs or claws will be tested. Also, evolution often does not fix the thing that causes a problem, it patches the problem by doing something unrelated. If an organism suffers a mutation that shortens its life so that it has difficulty rearing its children to childbearing age, that mutation will started being culled from the gene pool. Before that mutaion has been completely removed from the gene pool, another mutation may occur which shortens, the ge! station per...

Monday, February 24, 2020

Privilege Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Privilege - Essay Example For instance, a reading culture was developed in me at an early age. I did a lot of reading as a child, sometimes for two to three hours a day, and this habit has persisted in my adulthood. Even though I did not notice it, my reading that had been encouraged by my parents gave me a great advantage over other children who were the same age as I was. This large amount of reading was critical in enhancing my abilities to write and read which, is a privilege that is not available to all children. My family also had home-made meals together almost every day of the week, with appropriate settings that were done by my mother. Growing up, I hated the idea of being forced to clean up before taking a seat at the dinner table. Eventually I understood that these meals and bonding with my family provided me a chance to learn good manners, acquire communication skills, and the capacity to discuss and disagree without being disrespectful. I also travelled a lot as I grew up as a result of the job my parents did. Even though sometimes I missed my friends and people that I was familiar with, I still got a chance to visit a lot of places and almost all the states in the country. I also got the chance to travel to Canada, the United Kingdom and Mexico where I met and interacted with many different people from diverse backgrounds. I was able to take hikes in the Grand Canyon, go kayaking among the sea lions while we were visiting Northern California and visit various national monuments that are in Washington DC. Regardless of the fact that most of the trips that were taken by my family were within the United States, I still had a privilege that most of the children do not have as they do not travel as much as I did. Most of the children I grew up with considered my life as being privileged and it usually offended me when they mentioned this to me. My family

Friday, February 7, 2020

The language of health informatic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The language of health informatic - Essay Example ts or characteristics of the database includes the ability for it to have a simple decoding formula whereby all parties on the system can easily decode data that are put in the system and use these data in a way and manner that best meets their needs. Again, the data ought to be highly accessible. Accessibility in this case would touch on the need to ensure that the programming is designed at the level and standard of the user’s information technology knowledge. Finally, it is important to structure the database in such a way that even though it can be accessed easily, it cannot be easily penetrated by intruders. That is security should be a key factor. Database would be found to include among other things, personal data that touches on name, age, gender, religion and insurance information of patient (Gillespie et al, 2009). This is followed with patient profile, which includes data on aspects of the patient daily life including occupation, education, marital status, children, hobbies, worries, needs, patterns and habits (Tune and Salzman, 2012). Furthermore, the database looks at medical history of the patient as well as physical examination and laboratory data. When it comes to these areas, chief complaints, area of present illness, past medical history and medication are clearly spelt out on the database. The database could therefore be said to be an electronic system that makes the identification of the patient easier for the practitioner. Indeed, it is worth stressing the point that having a database that merely spells out and possesses the characteristics and medical data above is not enough. Rather, these data must be presented and handled in such a way that it represents the best form of utilization for the health practitioner. It is in such regard that the need to have a uniform coding and standardization of the data becomes important. In a multi-facility regional hospital such as this one, data that are uniformly coded in a single system would bring a

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Modern Art Essay Example for Free

Modern Art Essay The Post-Industrial Era in which we live in now is characterized by the extraordinary rate in development of technology. In sixty years we have managed to completely redesign every aspect of our lives in a way in which we allow technology to do most of the work. Whether we like it or not technology will keep evolving, and as it evolves it will impact aspects of society differently. The evolution of technology has had a very negative impact on artistic values in society and in aesthetics. In his essay â€Å"The Art of Collecting Lightbulbs,† Kimmelman exposes characteristics and qualities contained in art making. As Richard Restak explains in his essay â€Å"Attention Deficit: The Brain syndrome of Our Era,† Technology serves not only as an ally but also as a distraction from our daily activities. As a distraction it also serves as an escape from peoples daily routines, a place formerly occupied by art. Technology also facilitates the process of critical thinking and inhibits creative imagination, this turns out to be gravely detrimental to artistic development. As Technology distracts more people it will take away from the small group of people who are actually passionate about art. Technology now provides an escape from reality to those who need it. This niche was formerly occupied by art. Before Post-Industrial times people would rely on art to release their thoughts, whether it was on a canvas or a sheet of music. Modernly it is much easier to watch TV, play video games, or browse the web, than to set up a canvas to paint. The ease that technology brings with it makes our brains lazy. More often than not we chose to do those activities, which require less energy. This generally wouldn’t be a problem if the issue was choosing the elevator over the stairs, but when it begins influencing the activities we chose to do as a pastime, energy/thought intensive activities, such as art, will suffer. As stated by Restak, â€Å" In our contemporary society speed is the standard applied to almost everything that we do.†(339) This turns out to be very true when analyzed using a quote by David Shenk used by Restak. â€Å" We often feel life going by much faster than we wish, as we are carried forward from meeting to meeting, call to call, errand to errand. We have less time to ourselves and we are expected to improve our performance and output year after year.†(337) With this type of pressure we are not to blame for wanting to take the easy way out, but technology is. As we find lest time for ourselves, we find less time to release our, already hindered, creative thoughts in the form of art. Undoubtedly, if the dentist from Kimmelman’s essay lived in today’s world he would not have half of the time he had in his days to collect light bulbs. That is because I took an extraordinary deal of dedication, and most importantly, attention for him to collect over 75,000 light bulbs (217). Before it affects the time that we actually have to conduct artistic activities, technology already thwarts our ability to think creatively. As Restak quotes â€Å"The clutter, noise, and constant barrage of information that surround us daily contribute to the hectic pace of our modern lives, in which it is often difficult simply to remain mindful in the moment† (336). Being flooded with imagery, sound and text messages, our brain has to divide its attention to respond to all of these simultaneously. â€Å"Our brain literally changes its organization and functioning to accommodate the abundance of stimulation forced on it by the modern world† (Restak 332). So that even if we do have time for art our mind is divided and not able to think creatively. Hugh Alfred Hicks shares a story with Michael Kimmelman in which he was in Paris at a metro station and spotted a tungsten light bulb from the 1920s and took it for his collection (Kimmelman 217). It would be much more difficult for him to spot the same light bulb in a metro station in Paris today, as he would be bombarded by images, live changing screens with times, and advertising. His thoughts about his collection would likely the last thoughts in his mind. Creative thinking is on a downhill spiral. With the Internet we don’t have to wonder about anything anymore. Long gone are the days where we would have to imagine what the Great Wall of China looks like. We no longer have to yearn for answers with passion and fulfill a newly carved void in our minds; all we have to do now is Google images: â€Å"Great Wall of China.† This instant gratification (although convenient) overwhelms our ability to imagine. Our brains are lazy and after years of instantly answering our own questions, we become unable to create pictures in our head. This turns out to be harmful to creating art, as the first ingredient for art making is creativity. Not only is creative thinking decreasing due to technology, so is the actual population of artists. Not modern artists (as in graphic designers etc.) but classical artists. Technology provides us a virtual reality in which classical art is not involved. Although this is seen by most as the evolution of art, it is actually the demise of classical art. The wonderment of impressionist or French realist art has become a rarity. In the modern world we have not time or enough attention span to concentrate on such elaborate pieces. This is partly due to a phenomenon described by Restak, â€Å"The most widespread consequential speed-up of our time is the onrush in images- the speed at which they zip through the world, the speed at which they give way to more of the same, the tempo at which they move†(339). This seemingly never ending onrush of imagery takes away from our ability to sit still and analyze one single image. Since we are accustomed to quick changes in images and visual stimuli, we lack the patience to appreciate classical art pieces. A quote used by Restak of Blaise Pascal provides a good illustration of why this art is on the decline. â€Å"Most of the evils in life arise from a man’s being unable to sit still in a room†(334). As if we weren’t already disperse with all the technology that we carry around, being worried about our texts and tweets, our thoughts are also dispersed, this allows only for quick less elaborate imagery to get through to us. Since our brains are lazy and take the path of least resistance, most classical forms of Art cannot fill that niche. There are very few people left who can actually appreciate 40 minute long Mozart concertos. The radio now plays 4 minute longs songs and actually speeds them up so that they are shorter. Restak explains that our lack of attention has actually become somewhat normal. â€Å"Many personality characteristics we formerly labeled as dysfunctional, such as hyperactivity, impulsiveness and easy distractibility, are now almost norm†(335). In a world where these attributes are norm there is no room for overly detailed portraits or grand escalating music pieces. Our brains are rewired for instant gratification, a gratification seldom found in classical art. As technology helps our society advance to create a more highly efficient less wasteful machine, we can expect leisurely activities to suffer, mainly art. Technology makes it so that we are in more than two places at once whether we like it or not. This creates a split of thoughts in our brains. We try but are unable to, process two tasks at once. Our brains are pushed to jump back and forth between two or more different sections, which handle different parts of our thought process. While all of this is going on, the last thought in our brains is art. As we devote more and more time to our gadgets and videogames, we devote less time to creating and appreciating art.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Comparing Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau :: Compare Contrast Comparison

By acting civil but disobedient you are able to protest things you don't think are fair, non-violently. Henry David Thoreau is one of the most important literary figures of the nineteenth century. Thoreau?s essay 'Civil Disobedience,' which was written as a speech, has been used by many great thinkers such as Martin Luther King Jr. and Mahatma Ghandi as a map to fight against injustice. Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. was a pastor that headed the Civil Rights movement. He was a gifted speaker and a powerful writer whose philosophy was non-violent but direct action. Dr.King?s strategy was to have sit-ins, boycotts, and marches. Dr. King's 'Letter from Birmingham Jail' was based on the principles of Thoreau's 'Civil Disobedience'. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau are exceptional persuasive writers. Even though both writers are writing on ways to be civil but disobedient, they have opposite ways of convicing you. Dr. King is religious, gentle and apologetic, focusing on whats good for the group; while Thoreau is very aggressive and assertive for his own personal hate against the government. Both Martin Luther King Jr. and Henry David Thoreau have the same ideas, but view them differently. Dr. King wants to ultimately raise awareness and open doors for the better of a group. Thoreau wants more individual rights for people. Dr. King is explaining his view of conscience: I submit that an individual who breaks a law that conscience tells him is   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  unjust, and willingly accepts the penalty by staying in jail to arouse the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  conscience of the community over its injustice, is in reality expressing the   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  very highest respect for the law (Martin Luther King, p. 521).     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   This quote shows Dr. King?s opinion on going to jail. King knows that he was unjustly put into jail. He accepts going to jail even though he was put in jail wrongly. The community then knows of the injustice and should pressure the government. The other thing that happens is King is respecting the law by obeying it. He is a peaceful man and wants justice, but believes in following the rules peacefully to get the job done. Thoreau feels that conscience plays a more personal role. Can there not be a government in which majorities do not virtually decide   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  right and wrong, but conscience?... Must the citizen ever for a moment, or   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  in the least degree, resign his conscience to the legislator? Why has every   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  man a conscience, then. I think that we should be men first, and subject   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  afterward (Henry David Thoreau, p.581). Thoreau is questioning why majorities make the rules.

Monday, January 13, 2020

First Generation Romantics

Brittani Powell Dr. Matthew DeForrest ENG435/ TR 9:30-10:45 March 1, 2010 Individualism: First Generation Romantics The Romantics were known for their use of the unusual and old-fashioned in their poetry because they were in a very unusual and old-fashioned state of mind when writing their poetry. The Romantics were experimental writers and they lived during a very tough time period, and itshowed in their poetry. The Romantic period had the shortest life span of any literary era in the English language. It lasted 43 years, beginning from 1789 to 1832. It started during the French revolution and ended during the parliamentary reforms, which established a foundation for which still exists in modern day Britain. There were six major Romantics, and they were split into two generations. The first generation consisted of William Blake, William Wordsworth, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The second generation consisted of Percy Bysshe, John Keats, and George Gordon, Lord Byron. These poets were considered old-fashionedbecause they were the first to experiment with this style of writing. There was no one before them, so for influence they had to look back to the past for influence. Even when inventing a new style of writing there still has to be some influence. It is very hard to come up your own completely original literary style. They admired the work of Milton and Shakespeare very much. All the first generation romantics felt those two were the best poets and admired their style. Shakespeare and Milton were very old poets and they influenced the Romantics so their poems came off very old-fashioned and out dated. They used very old English that was hard for people to comprehend, making some people feel the writings were unusual. The Romantics were known for their theories on the connection between nature, the mind, and the imagination. The English Romantics accepted the reality of the link between man and nature in the form of the human imagination as the basis of human understanding, rejecting the scientific world view onmaterialism. Imagination is a force, or energy, that allows such a connection to be made. William Blake saw the human imagination as essential to human understanding of the world they live in; he saw reality as a â€Å"mental construction. According to Blake and the other Romantic poets, â€Å"once the energy of imagination is used effectively to realize the connection between man and nature, the individual gains freedom from the restrictive bonds of unimaginative thought. † The first generation romantics are characterized by their shift in style and subject manner from the Neo Classicalist. The use of satire is rare and the Romantics tend to focus on particular aspects of objects, people, and events instead of the fundamental nature of objects, people and events. One of the most important works pertaining to the change of style during this time was William Wordsworth’s Preface to Lyrical Ballads, which demonstrates Wordsworth’s particular motivations for how he writes the Lyrical Ballads. Notably the subjects of these poems, are â€Å"incidents and situations from common life† verses the normal neoclassical subject of incidents and situations from elevated life, like Alexander Pope’s Rape of the Lock, which is about the aristocracy and not the common people (Norton 266). Wordsworth also changes the style of his poetry when he states, â€Å"The reader will find that personifications of abstract ideas rarely occur in these volumes; and, I hope, are utterly rejected as ordinary device to elevate the style, and rise it above prose†, and â€Å"there will also be found in these volumes little of what is usually called poetic diction; I have take as much pains to avoid it as others ordinarily talk to produce it; this I have done for the reason already alleged, to bring my language near to the language of men, and further, because the pleasure which I have proposed to myself to impart is of a kind very different from what is supposed by many person to be the proper object of poetry† (Norton 267). Wordsworth and other first generation poets take a notable step away from their Neo Classical predecessors by embracing the common people and the common language. First Generation romantics also believe in the possible ability of dreams to clarify real ity, as seen in Coleridge’s Kubla_ Kahn_. Also _Kubla Kahn_,presents a different kind of characterization of the poet. The narrator states, â€Å"I would build that dome in air,† which shows the narrator’s desire to use his words combined with his imagination to create a poem, which is unlike the characterization of the poet in Rassles(Norton 448). In _Biographia Literaria_, Coleridge distinguishes imagination from fancy and even separates imagination further by distinguishing between primary and secondary imagination. Romanticism is often associated with radical individualism, and much Romantic poetry focuses on the struggles of the individual will to break or exceed its social and metaphysical bonds. Millenarianism, on the other hand, consists of the expectation of the fulfillment of God's providential design, in which the place left for individual human agency is limited if not nonexistent. The French Revolution could thus be viewed either as the work of heroic individuals struggling for liberty or as an act of God. The role of an individual as shown in Samuel T. Coleridge’s Religious Musings, is to know thyself; he starts the poem reflecting his Unitarian ideas about the independence of God, who is only One but at the same time He is everything we can feel and see and he equals God with Love. â€Å"There is one Mind, one omnipresent Mind, Omnific. His most holy name is Love† (Lines 105-106). Coleridge repeats two times â€Å"one† to emphasize the Unitarian Idea of the oneness of God. In the lines19-23 he speaks about the disaster of the war, the fight between France and England. A sea of blood bestrewed with wrecks, where mad embattling interests on each other rush/ With unhelmed rage ‘Tis the sublime of man. † You can imagine how terrible the situation was. It was like a disastrous vision, but a necessary vision because after it 1000 y ears of peace had come. According to Coleridge after that God will judge all the nations, â€Å"Our noontide Majesty, to know ourselves, parts and proportions of one wondrous whole! (Lines 127-129). † After this time of violence, a new better time came. The thoughts of the major part of the romantic poets are influenced by the French Revolution when they wrote about religion or other topics. Although at first some writers like Coleridge had a positive view of this violent period, later they changed their opinions because the results were not what they had expected. All the relations between the prophecies and the periods of violence did not come true and they felt disappointed. The French Revolution and the Unitarian tendencies of Coleridge is the key to understanding the major parts of his works and indispensable to understanding his religious point of view. Wordsworth's poetry is distinguished by his straightforward use of language and meter and his natural and often conversational themes and imagery. This is not to say, however, that Wordsworth's ideas are simple. He unites several ideas throughout his poetic works, including the importance of the natural world, transcendentalism and interconnectedness, religion, morality, mortality, memory and the power of the human mind. Wordsworth began publishing in 1793, at the age of 23, with a collection of poetry about a tour he took in the Swiss Alps – Descriptive Sketches. Wordsworth's poetry was a little ahead of its time; however, it instigated Romanticism in England through its emotional nature and its allusions to nature. His work has had a profound legacy on the Victorian and twentieth-century literature as well. Yet his ultimate goal was the betterment of mankind through the discovery of an individual's own joy and emotions. Percy Bysshe Shelly’s first major poetic work was _Queen _Mab. This poem was written early in his career and serves as a foundation to his theory of revolution. Shelly took William Godwin’s idea of â€Å"necessity† and combined it with his own idea of ever-changing nature, to establish the theory that contemporary societal evils would dissolve naturally in time. This was to be coupled with the creation of a moral mentality in people who could envision the ideal goal of a perfect society. The ideal was to be reached incrementally, because Shelley (as a result of Napoleon's actions in the French Revolution), believed that the perfect society could not be obtained immediately through violent revolution. Instead it was to be achieved through nature's evolution and ever-greater numbers of people becoming honorable and imagining a better society. _Queen _Mab was infused with scientific language and naturalizing moral prescriptions for an oppressed humanity in an industrializing world. William Blake, a painter and poet, and one of England’s most famous literary figures. A great predecessor to the Romantics, Blake was a revolutionary and visionary artist and his work represented a decisively new direction in the course the Visual Arts. He expressed an individualized view of humanity that became important to Romanticism. His poetry is described as â€Å"highly individual in style and technique† (Lawall, ed. , 540). To relate to his readers, Blake uses different voices and puts forth his own ideas about human existence. In his poem, The Little Black Boy, Blake uses the voice of a black boy who is confused on how he is different than the white boy. The reader is probably â€Å"painfully† aware of the society’s judgments of black people during this time. The black boy concludes by seeing himself as a protector to the white boy, â€Å"I’ll shade him from the heat till he can bear / To lean in joy upon our father’s knee† (Lawall, ed. , 544). Instead of understanding that white means good and black means bad, the black boy comes up with a new meaning for his black skin (Lawall, ed. 541). Blake uses emotion in his poetry to enhance the reader’s reaction to his works. He also looks to exposethe inner thoughts of the human being. Blake’s individualism within his poetry portrays the ideology that Romanticists sought to convey during this time period. The specialty of William Blake’s work is that he uses numerous literary techniques and devices to articulate his thoughts. He created such literary work because he was a creative thinker, fully conscious of the realities and complexities of experience, particularly the poverty and oppression of the urban world where he spent his most of his life. Still today, his artistic and poetic creations are valued in British culture. The first generation Romantics accepted reality of the link between man and nature, and man as an individual, in the form of the human imagination as the basis of human understanding, rejecting the scientific world view of materialism. The Romantic writer’s attempted to discover hidden unity between man and nature. It is imagination –a force, or energy, that allows such a connection to be made. The realization of this interdependent relationship carries with it a kind of freedom for the individual. William Blake saw the human imagination as essential to human understanding of the world; he saw reality as a â€Å"mental construction. † The Romantics asserted the importance of the individual. Brittani Powell Dr. Matthew DeForrest ENG435/ TR 9:30-10:45 March 1, 2010 Individualism: First Generation Romantics An Annotated Bibliography Damrosch, David, and Kevin Dettmar*. * *The Longman Anthology of British Literature. * New York: Pearson Longman, 2006. Print. This texton British Literature describes the distinction and conviction the first generation of the Romantic writers felt on individualism. The authors give a fresh approach to the study of Romantic Literature edited by scholars in the field. Major prose works are included in their entirety, together with a wealth of poetry and drama, from Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience to Byron’s Manfred —and beyond. The first generation Romantics and their Contemporaries of The Longman Anthology of British Literature is a comprehensive and thoughtfully arranged anthology that offers a rich selection of Blake’s commentaries and influences on the Romantic period. The text also includes Perspectives, Companion Readings, and â€Å"and Its Time† sections which show how major literary writings interrelate with and respond to various social, historical, and cultural events of Great Britain in the Romantic period. With a generous representation of fiction, drama, and poetry, the second edition includes major additions of important works and an expanded illustration program. This text is distinctive in exploring the perspective of the first generation writers and their take on individualism. *Greenblatt, Stephen, and M. H. Abrams. * *The Norton Anthology of English Literature. * New York: W. W. Norton, 2006. Print. The eighth edition of The Norton Anthology of English Literature text comprises six volumes, sold in two sets of three. The first set includes the volumes â€Å"The Middle Ages,† â€Å"The Sixteenth Century and The Early Seventeenth Century,† and â€Å"Restoration and the Eighteenth Century;† the second set includes â€Å"The Romantic Period,† â€Å"The Victorian Age,† and â€Å"The Twentieth Century and After. † The writings are arranged by author, with each author presented chronologically by date of birth. Historical and biographical information is provided in a series of head-notes for each author and in introductions for each of the time periods. Dickinson, Kate Letitia*. *William Blake's Anticipation of the Individualistic Revolution. * Philadelphia: R. West, 1978. Print. * This text on William Blake’s Anticipation of the Individualistic Revolution describes Blake’s struggle for individualism. The author describes Blake’s perspective and full descriptive criticisms on Blake’s works. Wordsworth, William, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Richey, and Daniel Robinson. Lyrical Ballads: and Related *Writings :* Complete Text with Introduction Contexts, Reactions. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2002. Print. This collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel T. Coleridge describes a collection of poems by William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge, first published in 1798 and generally considered to have marked the beginning of the English Romantic movement in literature. Most of the poems in the 1798 edition were written by Wordsworth, with Coleridge contributing only four poems to the collection, including one of his most famous works, The Rime of the Ancient Mariner. One of the main themes of â€Å"Lyrical Ballads† is the return to the original state of nature, in which people led a purer and more innocent existence. Wordsworth subscribed to Rousseau's belief that humanity was essentially good but was corrupted by the influence of society. This may be linked with the sentiments spreading through Europe just prior to the French Revolution. *Coleridge, Samuel Taylor, and J. C. C. Mays. **Poetical Works, II. Poems (variorum Text), Parts 1 & 2. * Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 2001. Print. This text describes the three parts of Volume 16 confirm and expand the sense of the Coleridge who has emerged over the past half-century, with implications for English Romantic writing as a whole. This text is distinctive in exploring the works of Coleridge and is written with complete analysis of each poem. Shelley, Percy Bysshe*, Donald H. *Reiman*, and Neil *Fraistat*. * Shelley's Poetry and Prose: Authoritative Texts, Criticism. New York: Norton, 2002. Print. This collection of Shelley’s poetry and prose contains one of the fullest, and certainly the most accurately edited collections of Shelley's poetry and prose available. Shelley is the wild child of English poetry and his determined opposition to tyranny produced a huge variety of poetry, ranging from the rending lament of Keats in Adonais, to the defiant and taut sonnet Ozymandias. The essays in this volume are generally helpful and explain the structures of the poems where useful. They are also refreshingly short. This text distinctively contains 15 brief critical essays, which are among the best explications you'll find of Shelley's work. *Chandler, James. The Cambridge History of English Romantic Literature. * Cambridge, UK: Cambridge UP, 2009. Print. In this text it describes the Romantic period as one of the most creative, intense and turbulent periods of English literature, an age marked by revolution, reaction, and reform in politics, and by the invention of imaginative literature in its distinctively modern form. This History presents an engaging account of six decades of literary production around the turn of the nineteenth century. Reflecting the most up-to-date research, the essays are designed both to provide a narrative of Romantic literature, and to offer new and stimulating readings of the key texts. One group of essays addresses the various locations of literary activity – both in England and, as writers developed their interests in travel and foreign cultures, across the world. A second set of essays traces how texts responded to great historical and social change. With a comprehensive

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Censorship and Self-Censorship - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1733 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2019/06/12 Category Society Essay Level High school Tags: Censorship Essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION This paper will go over the issues Public Libraries have with censorship and a few of its forms. So who is censoring materials? The American Library Association (ALA) has done a study on just who is initiating the majority of the challenges to materials. Not surprisingly patrons and parents are the top contributors the results are as follows: 42% library patrons; 32% parents; 14% Board or administration; 6% Librarians and teachers; 3% political and religious groups; 2% elected officials; 1% students. (ALA, 2018). The study goes on to say that 56% of these challenges took place in public libraries followed by 25% in school classrooms. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Censorship and Self-Censorship" essay for you Create order WHAT IS CENSORSHIP Laurie Halse Anderson once said Censorship is the child of fear and the father of ignorance. According to Merriam-Webster, censor is to examine books, movies, letters, etc., in order to remove things that are considered to be offensive, immoral, harmful to society, etc. (Merriam-Webster, 2003). There are many definitions of censorship; The American Library Association defines censorship as a change in the access status of material, based on the content of the work and made by a governing authority or its representatives. Such changes include exclusion, restriction, removal, or age/grade level changes (Lili, pr. 5). Knox (2014) describes censorship as an amalgamation of practices, including the redaction of text in a document, cutting pages out of a book, or denying access to materials (p.741). The general sentiment behind most of these definitions is that something is withheld from access by another. WHAT IS SELF-CENSORSHIP One of the types of censorship is self-censorship. Merriam-Webster defines self-censorship as the act or action of refraining from expressing something (such as a thought, point of view, or belief) that others could deem objectionable (Merriam-Webster, 2003). For this paper self-censorship will be from the perspective from within the public libraries. Many libraries, without even knowing it use a form of self-censoring when picking out books. In an article by Jamison, she notes how library keep this little secret under wraps. a dirty secret that no one in the profession wants to talk about or admit practicing. Yet everyone knows some librarians bypass good books†those with literary merit or that fill a need in their collections. (Jamison, 2018, par4) Another way libraries partake in self-censorship is in vendor or publisher bias. I have seen this a time or two, a patron askes the library to order a book they want to read, the book is pretty inexpensive but itrs an independent p ublisher and so the library simply says they cant complete the order. CENSORSHIP AND INTELLECTUAL FREEDOM Challenging books and censoring material is most prevalent in young adult literature. This can be a problem for children who dont have the means to formulate diversified opinions. In fact, Hill (2017) pushes for libraries to have educational materials that cover topics that address diversity, inclusion and social justice available for young adults, this need is even more pressing since the last presidential election in 2016 (p. 337). The Public Library should put themselves in the line of fire by advocating the rights to Intellectual Freedom and knowledge of any subject and information. The ALA describes Intellectual Freedom as the rights of library users to read, seek information, and speak freely as guaranteed by the First Amendment. (Oltmann, 2017:410) This would mean that all individuals have the right to read or view any and all ideas and should not be governed by censoring or challenging material. Some would say censorship is whatrs best for the good of the community, by helping to prevent conflict and allowing everyone to have a good feeling. Censoring things that may offend or anger entire groups of people can be left out of the collection and rid the library of the burden of upset patrons. With the growth of easily digital accessible pornographic and violent material, children can fall victim to becoming desensitized or confused on what is acceptable or not and so censorship would be welcome in this instance. The Childrenrs Internet Protection Act (CIPA) tries to detour this issue; we will discuss CIPA later. Other advocacies in favor of censoring is what companies can advertise, we can stop them from making false extreme claims. Although these things sound like they are helping the community, ignorance to the problems (by censoring) is not the answer; education is! CIPA Itrs no secret library budgets are being cut due to lower property taxes and penal fines. These revenues make up a vast majority of the funds for public (nonprofit) libraries who collect millages. To keep internet costs down many libraries are taking advantage of E-rate, a type of federal fund that cuts the costs associated with internet access. With E-rate the facility is required to filter material and comply with Childrenrs Internet Protection Act (CIPA). Schools and libraries subject to CIPA may not receive the discounts offered by the E-rate program unless they certify that they have an Internet safety policy that includes technology protection measures. The protection measures must block or filter Internet access to pictures that are: (a) obscene; (b) child pornography; or (c) harmful to minors (for computers that are accessed by minors) (FCC, 2011: par2). The problem with these filters is the mass generalization and over blocking of content that are legitimate and full of useful information (Batch, 2015:61). An ALA study has found that 10 years later CIPA has indeed created two classes of students: a class with unfiltered internet access at home to explore ethical choices about online interactions and a class of disadvantaged students who only have access to filtered internet at school (Batch, 2015:64). Librarians are expected to help children and teens learn to use/find correct and scholarly resources for school papers or homework. With mass filtering some of these resources become unavailable. Filters often come pre-configured with many categories and types of content already blocked by default. Even with careful review by library staff, many of the staff members dont completely understand what needs to be filtered and what is overdone. The very thing filters that are designed to protect children and teens from in libraries, ends up potentially doing more harm than good when it comes to education and intellectual freedom. CENSORSHIP AND MATERIAL SELECTION Material selection can be thought of as a type of censorship. It is easy to fall into the trap of only buying materials that will not cause a rift in the community one way or the other. One way to prevent this from happening is to enforce a collection management policy. Suppression of one text does not qualify as censorship. Selection becomes censorship when suppression or inclusion of certain types of materials happen. McMenemy (2008) notes on the subject of material selection: The selection of library materials is perhaps the most crucial aspect of the social contract between the librarian and the user. It is fundamental to our ethos and our status as a profession. In protecting and defending our role as selector of material, we need to take full responsibility for the collections we build. (p. 344) CHALLENGES AND CENSORSHIP As mentioned in the introduction to challenge library material is using a form of self-censorship. The ALA defines a challenge to material as an attempt to remove or restrict materials based on objections from a person or group. (ALA, 2018). This closly resembles the definition of censorship. It would go along with the thinking I am offended by this book, it is grotesque and therefore no child should ever read it! Gaffney (2014) explains that the reason so many young adult geared literature goes on the challenged or banned list is due to teenagers feeling raw emotions with issues such as gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered, cutting, eating disorders and suicide (p. 732). These subjects still seem taboo for most adult patrons and parents who dont want their young adult getting ideas from these stories to confuse their moldable minds. In most cases when a teen book, item or material is being challenged it is because someone found the information upsetting and is trying to protect oth ers from being upset by it (Knox, 2017:269). To further drive the notation that teens dont simply follow what their favorite characterrs do, Kokesh (2015) interviewed a group of 15 to 18 year olds on the subject. During the interview the teens stated that if faced with similar issues that their favorite young adult characters faced they would use the lesson of what not to do, due to already reading that undesired scenario, to find a better solution (p. 154). CONCLUSION While most all librarians will tell you that they are opposed to censorship, many unconsciously partake to some form throughout their career. It is easy to allow a covert action, like not repairing that sex education book in the childrenrs section just because you are tired of seeing it out on the window ledge showing all the boy parts and phone calls. Some of the hard struggles are the ones we as anti-censorship advocates have to make internally. References ALA. (2018). Censorship by the numbers infographic text, American Library Association. Batch, K. R., Magi, T., Luhtala, M. (2015). Filtering beyond CIPA: Consequences of and alternatives to over filtering in schools. Knowledge Quest, 44(1),60-66. Document ID: 2db7f402-0644-0de4-7dcd-af78838b2db4 Censor. (2003). In Merriam-Websterrs dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, MA Federal Communications Commission. (2011). Childrenrs internet protection act (CIPA). Washington, DC. DIO: Gaffney, L. M. (2014). No longer safe: West Bend, young adult literature, and conservative library activism. Library Trends 62(4), 730-739. Johns Hopkins University Press. Retrieved October 07, 2018, from Project MUSE database. Hill, R. (2017). Yes, we (still) can: Promoting equity and inclusion in childrenrs and young adult library services. The Library Quarterly, 87(4), 337-341 Jamison, A. (2018). Librarians beware: self-censorship. Intellectual Freedom Blog. DOI: Knox, E. (2017). Opposing censorship in difficult times. The Library Quarterly, 87(3), 268-276 Knox, E. (2014). The books will still be in the library: Narrow Definitions of Censorship in the Discourse of Challengers. Library Trends, 62(4), 740-749. Kokesh, J., Sternadori, M. (2015). The good, the bad, and the ugly: A qualitative study of how young adult fiction affects identity construction. Atlantic Journal of Communication, 23(3), 139-158. doi:10.1080/15456870.2015.1013104 Libraries Linking Idaho. (2016). Intellectual freedom and censorship. DOI: Mcmenemy, D. (2008). Selection and censorship: Librarians and their collections. Library Review, 57(5), 341-344. Oltmann, S. (2017) Creating space at the table: Intellectual freedom can bolster diverse voices. The Library Quarterly 87(4): 410-418. Self-censorship. (2003). In Merriam-Websterrs dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield, MA