Friday, December 27, 2019

Advantages and Disadvantages of Organic Farming in the...

PLAN Title: What are the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming to the Pacific Community? C: Organic Farming L: Pacific Community/Benefits D: What INTRODUCTION Context: Agriculture/Environment Subject: Organic Farming Limited Subject: Pacific Community/Benefits Issue: What are the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming to the Pacific Community? Thesis Statement: This essay will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of organic farming to the Pacific Community in terms of growers benefit, consumers benefit and environmental benefits. Main Idea 1- Disadvantages a) Time Consuming Example: It is basically labour intensive thus it takes more time than capital intensive. : It takes more time for green manure and compost†¦show more content†¦And also preparing the composts and green manure fertilizers is very time consuming as decaying process needs favourable/weather conditions and time thus this delays the harvesting time of the crops. Also since it is characteristically labour intensive then chemical and mechanical agriculture, a farmer may not be able to produce as much yield as he would have produced if mechanical agriculture was used. Nonetheless another disadvantage of organic farming in the Pacific is that costs of organically producing is very high because lots of labours has to be hired since weeding and pest control require more human eyes and hands to manage. Also there are relatively high costs associated with attaining and/maintaining organic certification. Since the farmers in the pacific have just recently been introduced to organic farming, they do not possess the relevant farming skills thus they will not be able to secure the desired yield. Hence despite investing/huge sum of money on labour, in short run it is not beneficial as labours do not have the skill to effectively get the considered necessary yield. In addition, due to people’s inexperience the farming techniques used are not well developed and widespread thus farmers have to improvise and use modern farming/methods with organic farming in order to do this type of farming. Production and cultivation methods are the twoShow MoreRelatedGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmos ) Essay2207 Words   |  9 PagesThis paper explores the history, uses, advantages, and disadvantages of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). All of the examples exhibited explore different aspects of GMOs found in recent research. From growing GMO crops to the health factors of eating GMO crops, this investigation illustrates vital information to form one’s own opinion on GMO use. Most farmers are in support of GMO crops because they are produced quickly and in large quantities. Some consumers are in support of GMO crops becauseRead MoreEssay on The Downside of Bottled Water1836 Words   |  8 Pageswhen they go to buy a bottle of water. 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Based on the SWOT analysis of Tea Tree Concealer, it mentions that Tea Tree Concealer needs to be more popular andRead MoreNew Zealand And India Trade Agreement Essay3385 Words   |  14 Pages European Union, United States of America, China, South Korea and Japan. There is a lot of potential for trade between India and New Zealand. India is good in producing the agricultural products and the occupation of 60 % of Indian population is farming. New Zealand is a developed country and can get best quality agricultural products from India which they need at a low cost when compared to buying from other countries, mainly because of the cheap labour and high productivity. India and New ZealandRead MoreBusiness Strategy for Campbell Soup4427 Words   |  18 Pagesvegetable-based beverages. 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It is most widely known by its former name,Albizia falcataria  but it also has been called  Ã‚   A. moluccana  and  A. falcata. FalcateRead MoreHow Starbucks Enter Into the Hong Kong Market5983 Words   |  24 Pages........................................................ 11 Entry to Hong Kong market – Joint Venture ............................................................................ 12 Advantages of the joint venture entry strategy ....................................................................... 12 Disadvantages of the joint venture entry strategy .................................................................. 13 Standardization vs. adaptation .............................................Read MoreStarbucks Analysis7510 Words   |  31 PagesSeattles Pike Place Market. Starbucks was named after the first mate in Herman Melvilles Moby Dick and is the worlds leading retailer, roaster and brand of specialty coffee with coffeehouses in North America, Europe, Middle East, Latin America and the Pacific Rim. In Canada, Starbucks is a major player within the specialty coffee market. The top speciality coffee retailers in Canada are: Second Cup, Timothys Coffee, Starbucks, Symposium Cafà ©, and Tim Hortons. Other direct competitors include: WilliamsRead MoreTourism Industry in Taiwan6152 Words   |  25 Pages 9. Social and Economic Impacts 23 10. Conclusion 24 1. Introduction Taiwan is the only East Asian island that is crossed by the Tropic of Cancer. Geographically, it is located at the point where the Asian continent meets the infinite Pacific Ocean, bringing it lots of unique natural landscapes as well as various kinds of plant and animal species, which brings Taiwan abundant opportunities to cultivate a prosperous tourism industry. Put in more detailed, Taiwan possesses many types ofRead MoreTransportation in Food Industry7769 Words   |  32 Pagesmovement of equipment and food supplies so that a nation can have access to food all year round. Transportation is vital to a nation’s economy. 1.1 Food Transportation No matter whether they are genetically modified, certified organic or grown using conventional farming methods, no matter if partially processed for use as food ingredients or canned, food commodities and products have a significant commonality: They require multiple steps in their transportation between point of origin and point

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Essay on Gangs of New York - 1544 Words

Picture Manhattan in 1860, a time before the city had been dolled up and gotten ready for the silver screen, before the glamour and allure took over. Amsterdam Vallan (DiCaprio) is a young Irish man that migrates to the USA at a young age. Amsterdam’s story takes place in Five Points District of New York, a filthy and dangerous part of the city before it was deleted form history. As a young boy Vallan witnessed his father’s murder at the hand of William Cutting or Bill the Butcher (Day-Lewis) during one of their many gang wars. As Amsterdam’s story progresses along side The Butcher they become inseparable, but Amsterdam had ulterior motive. Ultimately, Amsterdam attempts to betray his new found ally in order to avenge his father’s death.†¦show more content†¦Trouble begun to stir when the new comers needed jobs, and the taxes along with the amount of space changed drastically. The amount of disgrace bestowed upon the points came across clearly fro m Amsterdam’s perspective. He saw the filth and hatred, yet he stayed and battles because it was his land and he had the right. Similarly, â€Å"Mag’s trademark was her ability to bite of rowdy customers, and she displayed these anatomical trophies in a pickle jar up on the back bar.†(Slayton 19), the influent loons who had lived in the era and were historical characters were present through Amsterdam’s life as well. Though after ruckus upturned by the gangs, street names were changed and Little Water Street was deleted, in order to clear the slum and undergo the demolition of a â€Å"shameful† part of history. That the place known as Five points has long been notorious... as being the nursery where every species of vice is conceived and matured; that it is infested by a class of the most abandoned and desperate character.... In conclusion your Committee remark, that this hot–bed of infamy, this modern Sodom, is situated in the very heart of your City, and near the centre of business and of respectable population.... Remove this nucleus—scatter its present population over a larger surface—throw open this part of your city to the enterprise of active and respectable men, and you will have effected much for which good men will be grateful. (Board of Assistant AldermenShow MoreRelatedEssay on Gangs of New York905 Words   |  4 PagesGangs of New York: Who’s A True American? â€Å"You can hire half the poor to kill the other half.† Boss Tweed spoke these words in reference to the Draft Riots. It shows that you can easily turn the poor against each other, if you bring money into the situation. Gangs of New York is about the separation of the Irish and the Natives, which eventually led into larger conflicts. In this film there are two important characters, Amsterdam Vallon and Boyle McGloin, who were both Irishmen in the Five PointsRead MoreGangs of New York by Herbert Asbury Essay3497 Words   |  14 PagesTHE GANGS OF NEW YORK, written by Herbert Asbury, was used as the basis for the movie GANGS of NEW YORK, a gangster film directed by Martin Scorsese and starring Daniel Day-Lewis and Leonardo DiCaprio. Filmed in Rome, Gangs covers a period of New York Citys history, from the 1840s through to the bloody Draft Riots of 1863, at a time when graft and corruption permeated every level of government including the police department. The movies main plot revolves around revenge and the feuding betweenRead MoreGangs of New York, an Example of Naturalism Essay839 Words   |  4 PagesIn the beginning, it seems unlikely that Gangs of New York will be an example of naturalism. Unlike To Build a Fire or Open Boat, the whole story of Gangs of New York happens in a civilized area, and nobody is in a case of danger because of the nature. Naturalism is implicit in this article. But being implicit does not mean it is ineffective. Instead, the idea of naturalism within this article is more confound than other two stories we studied before. The very first scene, a cave is hidden underneathRead More Gangs of New York History vs. Hollywood Essay1120 Words   |  5 Pages nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;The movie begins in New York, in 1843, with a gang fight. Bill â€Å"the butcher† Cutting’s gang of â€Å"nativists† have challenged the â€Å"dead rabbits† (a gang of mostly Irish immigrants) to a fight to settle once and for all who is the most powerful gang in the area. After an intense battle the â€Å"nativists† win by killing the leader of the â€Å"dead rabbits†, also Amsterdam’s (the main character’s) father. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Amsterdam is then led into an orphanage whereRead MoreGangs of New York Essay697 Words   |  3 PagesGangs of New York: A Cultural Shift Jeremiah Harrity SOCI220 American Popular Culture Dr. Nancy Wack April 13, 2013 Gangs of New York: A Cultural Shift In the movie â€Å"Gangs of New York†, we see a city changed and reshaped through cultural influence of feuding individuals with different ideas. The movie is about a young man, Amsterdam Vance, who seeks to avenge his father, who was brutally murder in a gang dispute, against his adversary Bill the Butcher. On the surface the movie seemsRead MoreThe Film Gangs Of New York1726 Words   |  7 PagesThe film Gangs of New York, highlighted the facets of many different gangs; the most important being the Natives and the Dead Rabbits. Both gangs vied for power over the region called the Five Points during the Civil War time period. Within the film there were many different examples of social stratification like class privilege, status, and power. The examples of stratification were shown by both gangs and the individuals that the gangs were compromised of. The purpose of this paper is to analyzeRead MoreAnalysis Of The Movie Gangs Of New York 1352 Words   |  6 PagesP ositive Criticism - Warping you into Manhattan’s Five Points, an area in New York City upon which seemed as a place with no law during the mid-19th century. The drama film directed by Martin Scorsese, Gangs of New York, provides us an account of the anarchy that occurred; following the life of a man named Amsterdam, the son of a popular Irish-American leader, Priest Valon. Supported by the extraordinary acting performances by Daniel Day-Lewis (aka Bill the Butcher)Read MoreGangs of New York History vs. Hollywood1164 Words   |  5 PagesThe movie begins in New York, in 1843, with a gang fight. Bill the butcher Cuttings gang of nativists have challenged the dead rabbits (a gang of mostly Irish immigrants) to a fight to settle once and for all who is the most powerful gang in the area. After an intense battle the nativists win by killing the leader of the dead rabbits, also Amsterdams (the main characters) father. Amsterdam is then led into an orphanage where he grows to be a man, all while Bill Cutting runs the FiveRead MoreVersions of the Gangs of New York: A Comparative Analysis965 Words   |  4 Pagesthe name of creative license. This is undoubtedly true in the case of journalist Herbert Asburys The Gangs of New York: An Informal History of the Underworld, a seminal piece of investigative reporting weaved with lyrically lurid prose describing the debauchery, squalor and institutionalized barbarism of the era. Published in 1928, Asburys chronicle of the gangster culture spawned during New York Citys turbulent adolescence became a cult classic, one which eventually inspired famed American filmRead More The Western as Commentary about Decaying Values Essay3542 Words   |  15 Pagescontributed largely to reducing their state of mind to one of fear. Similar elements created strife for the protagonists in Ron Howard’s 2003 film The Missing. The film is a captivity narrative in whic h Maggie, a doctor who lives with her family in New Mexico in 1885, finds her lover killed and her eldest daughter taken captive by a band of Apache. At first scornful of her estranged father’s return to their home after several years of living among Chiricahua, she reluctantly asks his help to retrieve

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

Do The Right Thing By Spike Le free essay sample

Essay, Research Paper The whole narrative in Do the Right Thing took topographic point on an agonizingly hot summer twenty-four hours and dark in the vicinity of Bedford-Stuyvesant, a slum Black community. In that vicinity, three concerns dominate: a Black wireless station, a Korean food market shop, and an Italian pizza shop. In a infinite where the occupants were predominately black, the two foreign concerns strive to unify in and coexist. They seemed to win at first, but so the heat have strained tensenesss to the breakage point and a demagogue at the terminal became the accelerator for a calamity that had lead to a racial clang between the good established Sal s Pizzeria and the comparatively new Korean food market shop. Spike Lee, in the whole class of the film, did non clearly province what is the right thing but he had tried to integrate both Martin Luther King s no force and Malcolm X s force if needfully. We will write a custom essay sample on Do The Right Thing By Spike Le or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Each character in the film has their ain position of making the right thing. Mookie believes doing money is the right thing, Sal believes maintaining the concern running, Radio Raheem believes listening to his ain music Public Enemy, Smiley selling his images of Malcolm X and King. Even though each believes what they did is right, non everyone agrees. Pino doesn T feel like maintaining the household concern and even being in a black vicinity is right, no 1 except for Radio Raheem himself likes Public Enemy, everyone Tells Smiley to sleep together off, etc. The lone clip when every black individual agreed to one common end was when they were joined to avenge the decease of Radio Raheem and planned to destruct all foreigners, viz. the Korean and Italian concern and households. Smiley is portrayed as an annoyance, bumbling individual who tries to sell the same image of Malcolm X and King to everyone he encounters. He seemed to look up to both sufferers and all through the film seemed to understand their positions and point of views. At the terminal though, he became one of the three who started a boycott against Sal s pizza shops with the stupidest ground for person dissing his irritation. This shows that he does non understand at all the positions of King, nor even Malcolm X, since no injury except verbally was committed against him. He portrays Lee s position that people know the being of mom ny ideals and positions of people, but non many can carry through that thought. He was the lone one non to be arrested after the battle between Radio Raheem and Sal, but so, he was the one to trap the image of Malcolm X and King on the burnt out wall of Sal s pizza shop shows that he still did non hold on the thoughts of the two, and still lived in his ain phantasy and esteem. Mookie is a cardinal and interesting character all through the film. He is depicted as a lazy, irresponsible individual with a set end to do money. He seemed to esteem Sal and tried to befriend the foreigners. He merely seemed to alter after the incident when he thought Sal was seeking to bed his sister and that is what I think led to his actions before the public violence get downing it by throwing the rubbish can at the pizza shop. It may look that it has been an unneeded act of force but so, it can be interpreted as him seeking to acquire back to his people after working for a white individual. Mookie s action after the public violence shows that he hold detached himself from Sal s household wholly, and he got back to his household, which symbolizes him being back into the black community. Not accepting all the money from Sal shows that he still has some self-aware but besides gives an thought that he doesn T privation to owe Sal anything more. The movie shows the full extent of the down conditions of the interior metropolis by demoing the incompetency of its occupants. The occupants have much pent up defeat of their ain state of affairs and choler towards everything. The heat wave merely decline the state of affairs and they are all waiting for a ground when all their defeat and choler can detonate. Sal, unfortunately, gave them the chance by disregarding the menace and non seting up images of black famous persons on his wall of celebrity. This movie, I believe, teaches us the thought of labored relationships and force one time pent up choler and defeat got out of manus. Spike Lee further emphasizes his point by demoing us the expressions of Malcolm X and King at the terminal, giving the viewing audiences a pick where one can take between peace and force. From the movie before, one can see that both picks may take to dire effects if the people as a whole would non encompass the same ideal, but that would hold to be left to the people to take.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Willie, The Angelic Child Monologue Essay Example For Students

Willie, The Angelic Child Monologue Essay A monologue by Walter Ben Hare NOTE: This monologue is reprinted from Readings and Monologues A La Mode. Walter Ben Hare. Minneapolis: T.S. Denison Co., 1921. Good afternoon, Mrs. Boyer. How do you do, ladies! Isn\t it a lovely day. I saw some cars out in front, Mrs. Boyer, and I thought Willie and I would just drop over and spend the afternoon with you. Willie is so fond of company. Say How do you do to the ladies, Willie. No, no, now, mamma\s baby mustn\t be so bashful. Speak up like a little man and say How do you do! No, you can\t have a piece of cake. The very idea. Mrs. Boyer isn\t going to give you any cake, and I\m sure I haven\t any. Just sit on that little chair over there and be a good boy. He\s such an interesting child! Oh, you\re going to play auction? Go right ahead with your game, don\t mind us. Willie just adores to see ladies play auction. We\ll just sit here and talk to you while you play. Willie, you mustn\t touch that vase, you\re liable to break it. Vases weren\t made for little boys to play with. Don\t you just adore children, Mrs. Boyer? We will write a custom essay on Willie, The Angelic Child Monologue specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now I think they\re so interesting when they\re Willie\s age. It\s a real charm and education to watch the development of their little minds, the unfolding of the bud, as it were. Yes, he\ll be five in January. Isn\t he remarkable for his age? No, Willie, no! Mamma says no. That\s the dummy, you mustn\t touch the cards. Oh, he\s got them all mixed up. Naughty, naughty Willie. But doesn\t it show just how rapidly his mind is developing? He just adores auctions. Willie, Willie, put that cushion down. Put that cushion right back in the chair. Mrs. Boyer doesn\t like little boys who pull cushions out of chairs. No, no, sonny, you mustn\t talk to the ladies when they are playing auction. It\s so hard to keep him quiet. He talks and talks and talks! He has a positive genius for oratory. Why, only last month he recited a selection at the Sunday school entertainment. His father heard him, and he was the proudest man in town. Right then and there we decided that Willie should be a lawyer, or a st atesman. He recited Little Robin Redbreast and it would have brought tears to your eyes. He\s so emotional. He feels every word he utters. Willie, suppose you recite Little Robin Redbreast for the ladies. Stand right out here in front now. Toes out. Shoulders back. Now, make your bow. Just a moment, Miss Steel, surely you wouldn\t care to go on playing auction when Willie is about to recite! Now, Willie, begin! I\m a little robin redbreast, sir! Go on, petty, speak it out nice and loud. My nest is in the tree, that\s right. Now make your gesture. There\s the tree. Your nest is way up in the tree. Now, go on My nest is in the tree! That\s right, If you look up in yonder elm don\t forget the gesture there, Willie. My pleasant home you\ll see! Now, imitate the little bird. That\s rightskip over there. Willie, look out for the lamp! Now skip back again. Isn\t he a darling? I taught him that skip myself. Now the second verse, Willie. I have a secret I would like the little girls to know. Point to the little girls, Willie. There, isn\t that funny, he pointed right at you, Miss Steel. He thinks you are a little girl. Isn\t he precocious? Go on, now. But I won\t tell a single boy, they rob the poor birds so! Now act pathetic when you say that. Isn\t it wonderful the facial expression he has when he says they rob the poor birds so! Say it over again, Willie, and let Mrs. Boyer see your expression. She was dealing the cards and didn\t see the full emotion in your face. Yes, start from the very first. I\m a little robin redbreast. That\s right. Gesture to the right. Isn\t he graceful? Now the sk ip! Skip fast, Willie. Lift up your feet. Oh, the vase! He\s broken it. Willie, aren\t you ashamed to break Mrs. Boyer\s nice big vase? Come right over here to mamma, she\s got to kiss the naughty hand. You know, Mrs. Boyer, I always kiss his hands when he\s naughty and then he never forgets it. He really has a remarkable memory. He can recite several other pieces just as well as he can Little Robin Redbreast. Suppose you recite Little Orphant Annie for the pretty ladies, Willie. Oh, are you going, Miss Steel? I thought you always played auction all afternoon. Willie, Willie, put that hat down. You\re tearing it. You mustn\t mind him, Miss Steel. He\s only in innocent little baby. I don\t think it is hurt very much. Send it around to the Model and they\ll fix it just as good as new. Good-bye, Miss Steel. Come over and spend the afternoon with me some day. I\ll have Willie dance for you. He can dance the highland fling, and he gives the cutest movie imitations. Good-bye. She\s gone! Now three of you can\t play auction. We\ll just sit here and let Willie entertain us the rest of the afternoon. He\s better than a play!

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Organization Learning Concept

Organization learning can be defined as organized acquiring of experience through controlled and managed trial of new strategies and intelligent use of the results to achieve the required objectives.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Organization Learning Concept specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because the more dynamic an organization is the higher the chances of maintaining its prowess in current volatile market. This paper discusses the importance of learning to an organization, the necessary requirements and examples of organizations which have used this concept to maintain their brands in the current competitive market. Importance of learning to an organization The employment of this strategy will enable a company or the business empires realize its mission and vision statements. This is because organization learning empowers every member of the organization towards a common goal. By either creati ng and trying new policies and strategies or learning and positively responding to current challenges the organizations can formulate mission and vision statements and incorporate everyone to achieve them. Learning organization creates new challenges to the management and all the employees. The employees feel part and parcel of the organization. This makes them believe to be part of the solution and not the problem. The shift from the tradition advertisement based on disseminating information is being replaced by interactive advertisement as seen in social site advertisement and employees are faced with new modern challenges. Learning and acting to these challenges becomes the dream of every employee. Due to the volatility of the current marked the only way for organizations to stay afloat is to embrace organization learning. They take time to learn and implement better methods of doing things due to the continual change in the society. Car manufacturing companies such as Toyota lea rn from changes in international policies on emissions and fuel efficiency to invent more efficient automobiles.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Necessary requirements An excellent communication system is essential in organization learning. A good communication structure is essential in disseminating information and knowledge throughout the whole organization from senior management to other levels of management, from one department to another and also forms one person to another. This is especially important in large organizations that have different branches in different areas. Employment of communication tools such as web conferencing, instant messaging, cell phones and others enhance passing of information and knowledge within the organization (Eijkman, n.d; Janakiraman, 2008). For an effective learning organization the kind of the work force matters a lot. Curious a nd intelligent people who have an intuitive thinking about work based problems are an advantage as suggested by Serrat: Intellectually curious about their work, who actively reflect on their experience, who develop experience-based theories of change and continuously test these in practice with colleagues, and who use their understanding and initiative to contribute to knowledge development. (Serrat, 2009, p. 1) Knowledge is one of the most important requirements for effective learning organization. Learning and knowledge cannot be separated. This is suggested by Serrat: Knowledge is a critical asset in every learning organization. Because learning is both a product of knowledge and its source, a learning organization recognizes that the two are inextricably linked and manages them knowledge should encompass both the individual and corporate knowledge (Serrat, 2009, p. 1) Technology is part and parcel of passing of information and knowledge in the organization. This is important in ensuring that there is effective communication and management of knowledge. The organizations must invest in terms of time, support personnel, relevant infrastructure, and expertise. These and other requirements are important in facilitating the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Organization Learning Concept specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Learning organization is a very important concept for those organizations that want to remain in the market for long. Organizations learn from self made or prepared challenges or the challenges they face in order to brace themselves for the challenging future ahead. It is a very important concept that everyone should try. References Eijkman. H. (n.d.) The Learning Organization as concept and journal in the neo-millennial era: a plea for critical engagement. Web. Janakiraman. S. (2008) The Importance of being a Learning Organization. Web. Serrat O,(2009). Building a LearningOrganization. Web. This assessment on Organization Learning Concept was written and submitted by user JoantheMouse to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Tigris River of Ancient Mesopotamia

The Tigris River of Ancient Mesopotamia The Tigris River is one of two main rivers of ancient Mesopotamia, what is today modern Iraq. The name Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, although perhaps it ought to mean the land between two rivers and a delta. It was the marshy lower ranges of the conjoined rivers that truly served as a cradle for the earliest elements of the Mesopotamian civilization, the Ubaid, in approximately 6500 BCE. Of the two, the Tigris is the river to the east (towards Persia, or modern Iran) while the ​Euphrates lies to the west. The two rivers run more or less parallel for their entire length through the rolling hills of the region. In some cases, the rivers have a rich wide riparian habitat, in others they are confined by a deep valley such as the Tigris as it rolls through Mosul. Together with their tributaries, the Tigris-Euphrates served as the cradle for the latter urban civilizations that evolved in Mesopotamia: the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. At its heyday in the urban periods, the river and its human-constructed hydraulic systems supported some 20 million inhabitants. Geology and the Tigris The Tigris is the second largest river in Western Asia, next to the Euphrates, and it originates near Lake Hazar in eastern Turkey at an elevation of 1,150 meters (3,770 feet). The Tigris is fed from snow which falls annually over the uplands of northern and eastern Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. Today the river forms the Turkish-Syrian border for a length of 32 kilometers (20 miles) before it crosses into Iraq. Only about 44 km (27 mi) of its length flows through Syria. It is fed by several tributaries, and the major ones are the Zab, Diyalah, and Kharun rivers. The Tigris joins the Euphrates near the modern town of Qurna, where the two rivers and the river Kharkah create a massive delta and the river known as Shatt-al-Arab. This conjoined river flows into the Persian Gulf 190 km (118 mi) south of Qurna. The Tigris is 1,180 miles (1,900 km) in length. Irrigation through seven millennia has changed the course of the river. Climate and Mesopotamia There are steep differences between maximum and minimum monthly flows of the rivers, and the Tigris differences are the sharpest, nearly 80 fold over a period of a year. The annual precipitation in the Anatolian and Zagros highlands exceeds 1 meter (39 inches). That fact has been credited with influencing the Assyrian King Sennacherib to develop the worlds first stone masonry water control systems, some 2,700 years ago. Did the variable water flow of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers create the ideal environment for the growth of the Mesopotamian civilization? We can only speculate, but there is no doubt that some of the earliest urban societies blossomed there.   Ancient Cities on the Tigris: Baghdad, Nineveh, Ctesiphon, Seleucia, Lagash, and Basra.Alternate Names: Idigna (Sumerian, meaning running water); Idiklat (Akkadian); Hiddekel (Hebrew); Dijlah (Arabic); Dicle (Turkish). Source Altinbilek D. 2004. Development and management of the Euphrates–Tigris basin. International Journal of Water Resources Development 20(1):15-33.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The conduct of the DEA was an unconstitutional exercise of Congress' Case Study

The conduct of the DEA was an unconstitutional exercise of Congress' Commerce Clause authority - Case Study Example (Rule) The term commerce as used in the Constitution means business or commercial exchanges in any and all of its forms between citizens of different states, including purely social communications between citizens of different states by telegraph, telephone, or radio, and the mere passage of persons from one state to another for either business or pleasure. Intrastate, or domestic, commerce is trade that occurs solely within the geographic borders of one state. As it does not move across state lines, intrastate commerce is subject to the exclusive control of the state. (Rule) (Application) Here, Jones' list of activities, to wit the intrastate, noncommercial cultivation, possession and use of marijuana for personal medical purposes on the advice of a physician is, in fact, different in kind from drug trafficking. Moreover, this limited use is clearly distinct from the broader illicit drug market insofar as the growing of marijuana at issue in this case is not intended for, nor does it enter, the stream of commerce.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

BUSINESS FINANCE Assessment 1 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

BUSINESS FINANCE Assessment 1 - Research Paper Example Q3) Face Value = $1000 N= 30 years Coupon rate = 8% (a) YTM if Price is $900. Since Price YTM > coupon rate. Price at 9%: 80 x PVIFA (9%, 25yr) + 80/ (1.09) ^26 + 80/ (1.09) ^27 + 80/ (1.09) ^28 + 80 / (1.09) ^29 + 1080/ (1.09)30 = $ 897.3 Price at 7%: 80 x PVIFA (7%, 25yr) + 80/ (1.07) ^26 + 80/ (1.07) ^27 + 80/ (1.07) ^28 + 80/ (1.07) ^29 + 1080/ (1.07)30 = $ 1123.8 Price at 8%: $1000 By interpolation, YTM = 8% + (1000-900)/ (1000-897.3) YTM = 8.97% (b) YTM if Price is $1000. Since Price = Face value YTM = Coupon Rate Hence YTM = 8%. (c) YTM if Price is $1,100 Since Price > Face Value YTM Price at 7% = $1123.8 Price at 9% = $897.3 By interpolation, YTM = 7% + (1123.8-1100)/ (1123.8-897.3) YTM = 7.11% (d) The relationship between yield to maturity and bond price is that the yield to maturity is that discount rate that makes the present value of the bond's coupon payments equal to its price. Q4) a) Eps = $6, r = 15%, ROE = 15%, G =, Price = (i) Plowback ratio = 0 % g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.15 x 0 g = 0% Po = Div/ r -g Since nothing is plowed back in the firm, all the earnings are given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 Po = 6/ 0.15-0 Po = $ 40 (ii) Plowback ratio = 40% g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.15 x 0.4 g = 0.06 or 6% Po = Div/ r -g Since 40% is plowed back, 60% is given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 x 0.6 = 3.6 Po = 3.6/0.15-0.06 Po = $ 40 (iii) Plowback ratio = 60% g = ROE x Plow back ratio = 0.15 x 0.6 g = 0.09 or 9% Po= Div/r-g Since 60 % is plowed back, 40% is given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 x 0.4 = 2.4 Po = 2.4/ 0.15 - 0.09 Po = $ 40 b) Eps =$6, r =15%, ROE = 20%, g =, P = i) Plowback ratio 0% g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.2 x 0 g = 0% Po =... Since project E has the highest profitability index, it should be chosen first and then project C. Since the investment budget is of $ 8 million, investing in these two projects would also equal to $ 8 million. Since X Ltd has a higher standard deviation, it means there is more risk and a greater variation of returns and thus a high chance that the expected return will not originate. Co-efficient of variance is another measure of determining riskiness of a business and since X Ltd also has a higher co-efficient of variance, it signifies that it's a more risky business. Thus 100% investment in Y Ltd is a better investment. Other than that, if recession hits the economy, X Ltd will completely go out of business. This is one more reason for not opting for investment in X Ltd. d) Value investors are those who use dividends to value their investments. Regular income is wanted by them and they look for quality companies with earnings records and projects they believe the market has under-valued. They tend to hold the under valued stocks for a longer duration and eventually take advantage of the rise in share price that the earnings growth brings in the long run. Growth investors are those who use stock prices to value their investments.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

A Significant Problem of the Airline Industry and the Profitability of Research Paper

A Significant Problem of the Airline Industry and the Profitability of the Company - Research Paper Example The Rivalry is a major factor that influences the operation of a business in the industry. At present, there are 10 best budget airlines operating in Asia that has been rated by Smart Asia Travel, an online travel magazine (, 2008) as Asia’s top 10 budget airlines. On the basis of cheap tickets, reliable schedules, decent service, route network and access, Air Asia has been rated number one by this travel magazine. Other budget airlines that follow are Jetstar Asia, Nok Air, Tiger Airways, Cebu Pacific, Virgin Blue, Air Deccan, Spice Jet, Viva Macau and Hongkong Express. Rivalry among the budget airlines is considered intense because of its big number that competes for the same number of customers and market shares. Thus, there is a continuing race for leadership in budget airlines. Others reasons that intensify rivalry among budget airlines are the high fixed costs that require airlines to implement strategies to attract passengers and fill the airlines into the ful l capacity to attain the lowest cost per unit. High fixed cost is required in operating an airline, thus Air Asia needs to sell to a large number of passengers in order to attain profitability. This situation leads to the increased rivalry. Because of these high fixed costs, a firm finds it hard to make an exit in the industry. Take, for example, the situation of Air Asia that incurred huge losses before 2001 when it was owned by the government. The takeover of Tony Fernandez, a private investor revived the business and steered it to profitability.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Economics of Energy: Shale Oil

Economics of Energy: Shale Oil Economics of Energy As every nation endures the global recession, countries invest on various types of energy sources that offer the maximum benefits. There are many variations on energy that can be used such as solar energy, nuclear energy, wind-generated energy and shale oil reserves. Each type of energy has different economic benefits. At present times, shale oil reserves are to watch out for. Shale oil reserves are usually undeveloped given that the process of extracting its oil is a difficult process. However, the latest technology unfolds the overwhelming potential of shale oil exploration. The accessibility of shale oil resources across the globe and the effect of increased shale oil production have influence that extends further than the rest of competitors in energy industry. In contrast, other sources of energy offer economic benefits as well but only differ with costs incurred. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy helps to reduce air pollution, balance the Earths weather, avoid acid rain, and depletion of ozone layer. Nuclear power plants are environment-friendly source of energy. There are many economic benefits of using nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants are a good source of income while it incurs low costs on operation. In the United States, it is their second largest source of power. Aside from stability in future price, it also avoids the import on fuel. Although the economic benefits of nuclear power are great, the hype on shale oil exploration overshadows the nuclear industry. As many nuclear power plants are offline, most of them would find it easier to build new turbines for gas exploration than repair nuclear reactors. According to the Climate News Network in London, most of the nuclear reactors in the United States and Canada are shutting down since shale gas produces cheaper power (Brown, 2013, para.1). Moreover, the investment costs required for nuclear power plant is higher compared to shale oil exploration. Hence, the economic benefits of shale gas are better than nuclear power. Another source of energy is the solar power. This type of energy captures the photovoltaic cells that transform sunlight into electrical energy. Its edge among other sources of energy is that sunlight is free; hence, its energy is infinitely renewable. In the future, the cost of solar power is expected to decline below market price. To compare solar energy and shale gas, the latter has many variables to consider on its relevant costs such as land costs, drilling costs, corporate overhead and others. Hence, solar energy is more economic than shale gas when it comes to expenditures. Lastly, wind-generated energy is also an alternative source of electricity. Wind turbines convert the wind that passes through the blades into electricity. One of the challenges on wind energy industry is its disadvantage on costs. Its technology needs a hi gher amount of initial outlay than fossil fuels. Hence, shale gas is more cost-competitive compared to wind-generated electricity. Economic Costs and Profits of Shale Oil Exploration Computation for economic costs basically includes explicit costs, real costs and opportunity costs (, 2012, n.p.). On the other hand, economic profit is the difference between revenue and costs incurred. In this section, the economic costs are cash outlays, opportunity costs, transportation expense to China and Beijing Costs, Insurance and Freight (CFI). Below is a table of the writer’s own model of economic costs and profits of shale exploration (Figure 1). The figures are rounded off to the nearest whole number. Economic Costs and Profit for Shale Oil Exploration Total Revenue $ 12,000,000,000.00 Explicit Costs Pipeline costs Materials $ 8,000,000.00 Miscellaneous Expenses $ 1,000,000.00 $ 9,000,000.00 Land (934400 acres x $ 5000 per acre) $ 4,600,000,000.00 Well Cost (50 wells x $5,000,000 rate per well) $ 250,000,000.00 Drilling Costs $ 14,000,000.00 Transportations Costs (Cost Insurance Freight to Beijing, China) (6000 trucks x $8000 rate per truck) $ 48,000,000.00 $ 4,921,000,000.00 Total Explicit Costs Real Costs Labor $ 11,500,000.00 Total Real Cost $ 11,500,000.00 Opportunity Costs Opportunity Costs $ 50,000,000.00 Total Opportunity Costs $ 50,000,000.00 Total Economic Costs $ 4,982,500,000.00 Total Economic Profit $ 7,017,500,000.00 Figure 1. Sample Model of Total Economic Costs and Profit for Shale Oil Exploration In Figure 1, the figures indicated are merely estimates through extensive research. In the explicit costs, the costs incurred are for pipeline, land, well, drilling and transportations. These are costs that are directly attributed to the shale gas exploration. The estimates used for rate per acre, well, and truck are average computation for each account. Secondly, real cost includes all the labor costs incurred to extract oil from the shale. Lastly, the opportunity cost pertains to the amount which could have been earned using other alternatives such as nuclear power plant and so on. In the illustration, total revenue exceeds the total costs incurred which results to an economic profit of $7 Billion. Hence, the model shows a cash-generating shale oil exploration. The next illustration (Figure 2) shows the extended model of Figure 1. Expanded Computation for Economic Cost and Profit of Shale Oil Exploration Total Revenue $ 12,000,000,000.00 Total Economic Costs $ 4,982,500,000.00 Other Costs Decommission Cost Waste Disposal costs $ 384,500,000.00 Labor $ 568,050,000.00 Used-fuel Storage costs $ 211,230,000.00 $ 1,163,780,000.00 Operation or Fracking Expense $ 1,230,500,000.00 Construction Expense $ 805,080,000.00 Total Economic Cost $ 8,181,860,000.00 Total Economic Profit $ 3,818,140,000.00 Figure 2. Expanded Computation for Economic Cost and Profit of Shale Oil Exploration In Figure 2, the amounts from Figure 1 are retained and only the other costs account is added as well as operation or fracking cost and construction expense. The marginal cost is computed by dividing the change in total cost by change in total quantity of shale oil (AmosWEB, 2014, para.4). Hence, $ 8,181,860,000.00 $ 4,982,500,000.00 is $3199360000. Change in total quantity pertains to the change in output of shale oil extraction. For instance, a company can extract 100,000 tons of shale oil in a year and doubles for the succeeding years. Below is the computation for marginal cost per year. Change in Costs Change in Quantity Marginal Cost 1st year 3199360000 100,000 31993 2nd year 3199360000 200,000 15996 3rd year 3199360000 400,000 7998 4th year 3199360000 800,000 3999 5th year 3199360000 1,600,000 1999 Figure 3. Computation for Marginal Cost Figure 3 is a chart on computing for marginal cost. The numerator is the change in costs divided by the denominator which is the change in tons of shale oil. Energy Forecast Energy Forecast on UAE from 2014 to 2020 Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel 2003 26.74 2014 120.76 2004 33.46 2015 128.86 2005 49.49 2016 136.97 2006 61.43 2017 145.07 2007 68.37 2018 153.17 2008 93.78 2019 161.28 2009 61.75 2020 169.38 2010 78.06 2011 106.03 2012 108.9 2013 105.43 Figure 4. Energy Forecast on UAE from 2014 to 2020 In Figure 4, the amounts from the year 2003 up to 2013 are data released by World Bank Commodity Price Data (Knoema, 2013). Following the past trends on Dubai’s oil prices, the next 6 six years are forecasts through the Microsoft Excel’s trend function. The illustration shows a forecast of the increasing oil price in the next 6 years. UAE’s oil price is to increase by $7-$9. Comparative Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US UAE UK United States Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel 2003 26.74 28.85 31.11 2004 33.46 38.3 41.44 2005 49.49 54.43 56.44 2006 61.43 65.39 66.04 2007 68.37 72.7 72.28 2008 93.78 97.64 99.56 2009 61.75 61.86 61.65 2010 78.06 79.64 79.43 2011 106.03 110.94 95.05 2012 108.9 111.97 94.16 2013 105.43 108.86 97.94 2014 120.76 123.61 109.21 2015 128.86 131.63 115.36 2016 136.97 139.65 121.52 2017 145.07 147.66 127.67 2018 153.17 155.68 133.83 2019 161.28 163.70 139.98 2020 169.38 171.72 146.14 Figure 5. Comparative Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US Figure 6.Bar Graph of Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US Figure 5 illustrates the past and future forecasts on the oil prices of UAE, UK and the United States. Using the past trends on oil prices of these countries, a forecast for the next 6 years is made. The same method of computation has been made similar to Figure 5. Its summary on Figure 6, UK has the highest amount of oil price in the next 6 years while UAE falls second. Although United States has usually the highest price of oil in the last 10 years, UK started to lead starting 2012 until now. Hence, both United States and UAE has to improve more in terms of their energy economics to surpass UK’s performance in energy industry. References Brown, P. (2013, February 13).Shale gas kills nuclear power | Climate News Network. Retrieved from> (2012).Concept of Economic Costs Explict Cost Implict Cost- Real Cost Oppotunity Cost Definition and Example RetrievedJanuary24, 2014, from> Knoema (2013, October).Crude Oil Prices Forecast: Long Term to 2025 | Data and Charts RetrievedJanuary25, 2014, from> Marginal Cost, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2014. Retrieved January 24, 2014>. Theory of mind: Autism Theory of mind: Autism The term theory of mind in cognitive psychology allows individuals to describe and understanding of other individuals metal state about their beliefs or thoughts no individual can be certain what another individual is thinking but can have a good understand in what they may believe what they are thinking or about their thoughts Baron-Cohen (1997) theory of mind is exclusive to humans and allows humans to have a better understanding about the social world around and allows individuals to interact with other individuals in appropriate way Baron-Cohen (2003) Autism is a developmental disorder which occurs in the first 2 years of the Childs life and can affect approximately four in every ten thousand children (Baron-Cohen, Leslie Frith, 1985), the disorder is more four times more likely for a boy to have the disorder than a girl (Gilberg and Coleman, 1992; Rapin, 1997). An individual who has the disorder may find it hard to interact with another individuals and find it hard to understand what they are saying or understand the emotion of behaviour from another individual that also cannot understand their inner self and the other individuals thoughts and believes. Early signs of autism in a child cannot keep eye-to eye contact with another individual for a long period of time. (Swettenham et al., 1998) Also they cannot spontaneously play with a toy because it may be the fact their disorder cannot let them understand what the toy does. A study took place where individuals where ask to sort out pictures giving to the by category, children wi th the artistic disorder sorted the pictures out by objects example hat scarf (weeks and Hobson, 1987) this shows that not all social communication is impaired but they have little understanding of what is being asked of them. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task(Baron-Cohen et al., 1997). Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001a, 2001b) showed some individuals pictures of peoples eyes and where giving four different type of words describing emotion this study was allocated to individuals with autism and also individuals without the disorder but show some signs of the autistic disorder. Baron-Cohen et al. (1997) believes that is a pure test of theory of mind and believes that the results from this study can be an in sight to see if an individual has got the autistic disorder. Children without the disorder start to use the terms think and want this shows they have some understanding of their inner self Most autistics children are delayed in learning a langue which can lead them to make new words up which is called neologising this make it harder for them understand communication and participate in social chat with other individuals Rutter (1987). An autistic individual finds it hard to keep up with the subject of conversation and also shows in ability to use feedback which (Bailey et al., 1996). Children at the age 2 Â ½ can to understand pretend play and the thoughts of other people when as children with autism have mind blindness this is an inability for them to understand social interactions which the individual finds it hard to develop a loving relationship with another individual. The disorder makes the individual find it hard to understand how some else is feeling and its difficult for the autistic individual to interact with another individual with out warning and may feel cold or distant towards other individuals. (Karmiloff-Smith, 1988, 1992) believes that all children explore the environment around them and automatically think of hypothesis and testing them this allows them. The social problems which under go in everyday life which autistic individuals have to face in everyday life, there has been studies which have been created to see if the problems they occur are related to the theory of mind. The Sally- Ann test false belief task was created to see if the individual on going the task had theory of mind skills or not. A child was introduced to two dolls called sally and Ann and where allocated with their own box with a marble hidden inside of it. The child was then told that sally has to go for a minute removing her from the scene and leaving her box behind this. The child is then told Ann is going to play a trick on sally and removes the marble from sallys box. Sally is then returned and the child is then asked where sally should look for the marble. A child with theory of mind will remember that sally doesnt know where her marble is and unaware that it is missing and will look it sallys box by using worlds for example he thinks however a child lacki ng theory of mind skills will only see it from her point of view and would look in Anns box Baron-Cohen, Leslie, and Frith (1985) Many children passed this false belief test which have the autism disorder. Nearly 80 percent of artistic children failed this task which shows that most of the children taking part have not got the inner ability to understand other peoples thought and emotions. Baron- Cohen et als (1992 brought out a checklist for autism to see if any children have the autistic disorder to allow parents or guardians to find out in case of the risk of developing the disorder. The most common signs of autism is mental retardation is most common with 75% of all cases (Rutter, 1979; Rapin, 1997) there is no strong evidence to prove autism is inherited disorder (Rutter, 1994) Autism is clearly understood as a developmental disorder which makes it difficult for that individual to express him/her self and find it hard to understand any other individuals feelings or understand that they can feel emotions and think thoughts. There is not enough evidence to suggest that theory of mind can allow us to understand about autism to its full potential and that theory of mind describes the disorder to where it is completely understood.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Social Issues in Toni Morrisons The Bluest Eye :: Toni Morrison The Bluest Eye

The Bluest Eye Social Issues With The Bluest Eye, Morrison has not only created a story, but also a series of painfully accurate impressions. As Dee puts it "to read the to ache for remedy" (20). But Morrison raises painful issues while at the same time managing to reveal the hope and encouragement beneath the surface. A reader might easily conclude that the most prominent social issue presented in The Bluest Eye is that of racism, but more important issues lie beneath the surface. Pecola experiences damage from her abusive and negligent parents. The reader is told that even Pecola's mother thought she was ugly from the time of birth. Pecola's negativity may have initially been caused by her family's failure to provide her with identity, love, security, and socialization, ail which are essential for any child's development (Samuels 13). Pecola's parents are able only to give her a childhood of limited possibilities. She struggles to find herself in infertile soil, leading to the analysis of a life of sterility (13). Like the marigolds planted that year, Pecola never grew. The concept of physical appearance as a virtue is the center of the social problems portrayed in the novel. Thus the novel unfolds with the most logical responses to this overpowering impression of beauty: acceptance, adjustment, and rejection (Samuels 10). Through Pecola Breedlove, Morrison presents reactions to the worth of physical criteria. The beauty standard that Pecola feels she must live up to causes her to have an identity crisis. Society's standard has no place for Pecola, unlike her "high yellow dream child" classmate, Maureen Peals, who fits the mold (Morrison 62). Maureen's influence in the novel is important. "She enchanted the entire school... black girls stepped aside when she wanted to use the sink in the girl's toilet... She never had to search for anybody to eat with in the cafeteria--they flocked to the table of her choice" (62-63). In contrast, Pecola's classmates insult her black skin by chanting "Black e mo Black e mo Ya daddy sleeps nekked/ stch ta ta stch ta ta" (65). The most damaging interracial confrontation related to color involves Pecola and an adult, Geraldine (Samuels 12). When Pecola enters Geraldine's home at the invitation of her son, Geraldine forces her to leave with words that hurt deeply, saying "Get out... You nasty little black bitch. Get out of my house" (92).

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Unbelievable Horrors

Aorta Criminal Justice Administration 201 American Military University Skinnier Nikkei Abstract In recent years, the lawmakers and criminal Justice experts have conveyed alarm regarding the growing prison population in elder prisons, along with the crumbling prison structures housing these inmates. While a majority of individuals agree this issue warrants immediate attention, the concurrence diminishes about how to attack this problem.A review of decisions set into place with laws, it has become clear that monetary confinements of elder prisons have become invisible barriers to the bargaining table. The paper compares the cost of renovating elder prisons to the costs of creating new facilities. This autopsy of decisions delves into the financial aspects of closing down older structures and whether or not it was cost beneficial. The numerous facilities coming into the â€Å"over-the-hill† age require an extensive examination to prevent monetary waste in the future. A Review of Decisions The dark side of humanity has existed for millennia.Some would contend that murder is the darkest, vial atrocity blanketing humanity. From the first documented Biblical fratricide involving Cain and Able, to recent homicides plaguing the media outlets, mankind has struggled to prevent these unbelievable horrors and reprimand the convicted. Society did not want these individuals roaming freely, as their unspeakable crimes invoked fear in the mind of every law-abiding citizen. Thus, structures were erected to cage the criminals and further prevent crimes against humanity. As time went on, more and more structures were needed to house the influx of criminals.Existing facilities were running beyond capacity and some were in deed of dire repair. The question put forth was, â€Å"Is it financially practical to renovate existing structures or to build entirely new ones? † Additional costs factors, such as food, clothing, healthcare, and educational programs, were itemized and incorporated into that equation. Converting elder prisons with substantial monetary confinements may and may not be the best practical solution. Looking into the closure of the Eastern State Penitentiary the following questions can be answered: 1 .Was it practical to close the Eastern State Penitentiary? 2. Is it financially beneficial to e-open the Eastern State Penitentiary? 3. Why build new facilities? 4. What are the plans for abandoned U. S. Prisons? Understanding the true reason for this prison closure could answer future questions regarding taking a facility out of operation. Whether it is a court-ordered ruling due to cruel and unusual punishment or asbestos issues creating a health concern, it is necessary to truly evaluate the closure and expose monetary waste. Incarceration as a form of punishment was first documented in the 1st millennia BC in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Suspected or guilty criminals awaited their death sentence or command to be come a slave in underground facilities labeled dungeons. The Ancient Romans adopted even harsher methods of incarceration by building prisons exclusively underground with tight walkways and cells in pitch darkness. (Prison History. N. D. ). Time gave way to incarceration reform and the world's first true prison, the Eastern State Penitentiary, was opened in 1829.Abandoning corporal punishment and harsh treatment of the inmates, the Eastern State Penitentiary was designed with complete and solitary confinement in mind to alp the criminal move to reflection and change their criminal ways. Was it practical to close the Eastern State Penitentiary? Situated on 11 acres near downtown Philadelphia, PA, the Eastern State Penitentiary was considered the most expensive American building during the sass's and soon became the most famous prison in the world.The design, o'clock wings radiating outward from a central rotunda, allowed each o'clock with â€Å"central heat, running water, a flush t oilet, and a skylight. † Additionally, each o'clock had an adjacent â€Å"private out door exercise yard contained by a 10-foot high wall. (U. S. History. Org. N. D. ). Originally built to hold 300 inmates, by the sass's, it was forced to house over 2,000. Due to the costs of the inflated prison population, the subsequent cells, even those built underground, did not have skylights, lighting, or flushing toilets.By the sass's, over 130 years after it was erected, the Eastern State Penitentiary was outdated and in need of extensive repairs. The neo-Gothic exterior has weathered the tests of time; however, the electrical and mechanical systems inside of the prison walls were deteriorating. The monetary resources needed to ring the structure back to its momentum were too vast and in 1971, the state of Pennsylvania closed the doors to the once famous prison. (Woodman, 2008). Is it financially beneficial to re-open the Eastern State Penitentiary?The city of Philadelphia, PA acquire d the title to the Eastern State Penitentiary for $400,000 in 1984. Plans for redevelopment of the site were halted by pleas to then-Mayor Goode and all proposals were rejected for commercial use. In 1988, the first limited tours were given at the abandoned prison. The Pew Charitable Trusts held fundraisers to obtain financial resources for the preservation of the National Historic Landmark. These efforts began in 1991. (Easterner. Org, n. D. ) The trickle of money into the preservation and restoration of the prison filtered in at a snail's pace.With the help of another fundraiser, the Eastern State raised over $5 million dollars in 2009. According to Annie Major, author of â€Å"Do We Really Still Need the Eastern State Penitentiary? â€Å", states $2 million dollars of the $5 million was spent â€Å"to conserve the prison synagogue, the Brillion millions, the print-shop roof, ND sections of the floor, perimeter wall and lights. † (Major, 2011). (One of the reasons the pri son closed was due to the electrical systems needing repair. She expresses concern with the constant money pit of renovations, Just to keep the prison alive for the sake of tours. She feels at this rate, â€Å"the Eastern State could be a century-long, multi-million dollar project; one that will leave in our midst a fully restored, inoperative 19th-century prison. † The plan is not to re-build the prison but the end goal is to keep it in a â€Å"maintainable† ruin. According to the website, Radiochemical. Mom, the prison is a â€Å"safe place to be since it is so old it has no lead paint or asbestos. † (Radiochemical. Com, n. D. ).Imagining the repairs that were completed with $2 million dollars, it isn't difficult to figure out that the costs of bringing the prison back to a full-scale operational facility would take less monetary resources than building a completely new prison. With the absence of asbestos and lead, thereby depleting the need for even more fin ancial resources, bringing the prison back to handle over-crowding in other locations may not take as much money as once suspected. However, that isn't what is currently planned for the state of Pennsylvania. Why build new facilities?The current Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett, and the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Secretary John Went have allocated $400 million dollars on two 4,100-bed facilities and construction has already begun. The elder prison these two are replacing, Aggregated, had accepted the inmates from Eastern State. Governor Corbett and Secretary Wendell will not release the figures it would take to renovate Aggregated, only stating that the state of Pennsylvania will â€Å"save money by alluding more efficient facilities. † (Decelerate PA, n. D. ). The monetary costs of renovating the Eastern State Penitentiary has also been withheld.In the sass's, when the decision was made to close the structure, the future prison population was unforeseen. Alt hough, based on Eastern State's experience with over-crowding, officials at that time knew there would not be enough space to house the influx of inmates. Yet, looking into the possibility of turning the Eastern State Penitentiary into a â€Å"super-Max† prison or a facility house only those on Pennsylvania death row would have been reviewed. The Eastern State prison could also have been used to house only those individuals for short-term prison sentences or the most violent, repeat offenders the state of Pennsylvania has witnessed.Now, there are two existing structures that could very well be renovated at a fraction of the costs of two new facilities. One is still in operation and the other is only open for public tours. Factor in the yearly operating costs statewide of all Pennsylvania prisons, there is a need to drastically curb waste and prevent unnecessary correctional structures. The fiscal year of 2010 brought about a $1. 6 billion dollar price tag for Pennsylvania pri son expenditures. 22% of this figure was outside of the normal prisons operating costs. (Vera. Org, 2012).The average cost, per year, to house over 48,000 inmates was $42,339 per inmate. Adding to the $1. 6 billion dollars is the $400 million for two new facilities, thereby costing the average taxpayer over $3,000. (Vera. Org, 2012). Looking at other ways to significantly decrease the burdens placed on the taxpayers by housing, feeding, educating, and reforming the ballooning prison population, there needs to be a more thorough examination into allocating millions of dollars for new prisons instead of renovating existing structures. What are the plans for abandoned U. S. Prisons?Numerous prison facilities nationwide have been closed and/or abandoned in favor of more modern and spacious correctional facilities. Some of these locations have turned into utter wastelands. Take for instance, the Old Essex County Prison in Newark, N. J. As a testament to time, the unabated decay has turne d into a haven of drug addicts finding refuge in the old prison cells. Condemning the property will not reverent serious injury or death and its negligence is far too severe to be restored structurally. Another location that sits idle is the former Missouri State Penitentiary.This prison opened its doors in 1831 and was fully operational for 168 years. (Longer than the Eastern State Penitentiary. ) It finally closed its doors in 2004. The monetary confinements by the state prevented any type of serious renovations and public tours began in 2006. (As of 01 October 2013, the public tours have been suspended due to a site assessment finding mold in sections of the prison. ) Due to the state of Missouri lading the title to the property and a dwindling economy, the future looks very bleak for â€Å"the bloodiest 47 acres west of the Mississippi. Lastly, the West Virginia State Penitentiary in Mountainside, W. V. Opened for operations 1876. Through its history, the West Virginia State Pe nitentiary made the United States Department of Corrections Top Ten Most Violent Correctional Facilities. In 1986, the West Virginia State Supreme Court ruled that the ex. foots cells were deemed cruel and unusual punishment. 9 years later, in 1995, the West Virginia State Penitentiary closed its doors for good. Today, public tours of the facility are the only operations occurring at this once notorious prison.As structures age and the prison population continues to increase, more and more facilities are being ushered in to deal with this revolving door off problem. Left in the wake are structurally sound buildings with very little to no use to the state or the cities they sit in. Other than daily public tours and haunted houses every Halloween, these buildings could have potential to save the taxpayers of the state millions of dollars annually. Instead of wasteful spending to build new facilities, existing ones an be renovated to comply with current federal and state laws at half t he cost.

Friday, November 8, 2019

A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Example

A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Example A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Dams have had serious impacts on the lives, livelihoods, culture and spiritual existence of indigenous, tribal and illiterate people, and on the physical environmental conditions and biodiversity. As far as the dam related developmental activities in Himalaya Himalayas are concerned, they got momentum during 5th five year plan and at present there are more than 400 power projects in five perennial river basins spread over 55,673 sq. Km geographical area. Every basin is being excessively exploited which has a considerable impact on environment and threatening the lives and livelihood of the mountain inhabitants. The present paper is based on the primary research carried out in Rave basin of the state. There are ore than 80 power projects of different magnitudes in 40 rivulets that have been earmarked for the planned development and received detrimental impact on the available traditional knowledge because of multiple reasons. In the present paper the responsibility of hydroelectric power projects for threatening the existing traditional knowledge which are serving social, cultural, spiritual, and economic aspects of communities since ages but with the installation of developmental projects these are being threaten, will be analyzed which is based on original micro lied research carried out in the lower Himalayan Region by using exploratory, descriptive and participatory method of research. To analyses the impacts on 03 commissioned power projects, 500 respondents from 55 villages divided in seven research cluster, selected by cluster convince simple random sampling methods have been used. Received data codified, interpreted by applying suitable statistical tools. KEYWORDS: hydroelectric power projects; traditional knowledge; environment, ecosystem services, impact on livelihood. Http://www. Tar]. In 65 INTRODUCTION environmental conditions and biodiversity. Throughout human history natural resources have been exploited to sustain growing human populations. Over the last few decades, rising economic growth rates in most developing countries have contributed to increasing levels of exploitation of natural resources and environment degradation, which unchecked could have detrimental effects on future growth patterns. The increase in the world energy demand forced to increase generation of energy from various sources. By 2100 global mean-temperatures are forecasted to be raised by 1. 4 to 5. Degree centigrade with an accompanying increase in global mean- precipitation levels [2]. The increase demand of energy can be met by increasing hydrophone generation [2]. Global hydrophone production currently supplying around 19 % of global demand, and is anticipated to be increased three-fold in next century [1]. However, studies indicate that declining river flows, as a result of climate changes will lead to declining hydrophone production. Against a backdrop of rising global surface temperature, Indian monsoon remained unstable in the past century. Using daily rain fall data, Swami et. (2006) observed significant rise in the frequency and magnitude of extreme rain and decrease in the frequency of moderate rain in central India. Swahili (2007), using a multinational global model, simulates energy supply and demand, price trajectory and growth. It is shown that higher energy prices generated by rapid growth in China and India may constrain other countries growth. Hydrological data defined on an annual time scale are generally characterized stationary unless there are l arge-scale climate variability, natural disruptions and human-induced changes such as reservoir construction Salsas, 1993). At present, in the developing state of countrys economy, requirement of electrical power for both industrial and agricultural use has been increased over the year. The Report of the Group on Power for 10th plan estimated the need based capacity addition of 62,213 MAW during 1 lath plan. Thus, it is necessary to commission projects to generate power to bridge the ever-increasing gap in demand and supply scenario. Up to March, 2010, out of total estimated potential capacity of power generation in India (1, 50,000 MAW) only 15 per cent has been commissioned and 7 per .NET is on the way of its commissioning. On the one hand, it is necessary to expedite massive plan known as Mission-2012, Power for All, under which 50,000 MAW hydroelectric powers is to be added in the existing power generation capacity but on the other hand, with this 22% exploitation of power ill-effects have become visible. Canadian group of researchers has observed that hydro power is no more pollution free; it omits greenhouse gases along with other many socioeconomic, cultural, psychological, livelihood and climatic impacts in the areas where such types of developmental mills are planned. Traditional knowledge (TX) generally refer to the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities which are being used by them to sustain their TRANS Asian Research Journals lives. TX is also encompasses the wisdom, knowledge, and teachings of these communities and in many cases, it has been orally transmitted from generation to generation and sometimes from person to person in one generation. Some forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and even laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through different meaner. Himalaya Pradesh is a mountainous state having about thousand perennial streams which form a diverse drainage system in the state. It has five perennial rivers of Indus water system I. E. Chance, Yamaha, Rave, Status and Baas (The fig. L shows four major rivers of Indus water system I. E.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Comp Research Paper

Comp Research Paper Comp Research Paper Paige Wilsher Dr. Sally Emmons Comp 1113 19 November, 2013 The Fiery Future â€Å"When it comes to the future, there are three kinds of people: those who let it happen, those who make it happen, and those who wonder what happened.† − John M. Richardson, Jr. This quote is something one can see throughout Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. There are multiple characters that fit these descriptions but three main characters that fit it perfectly. Beatty the fire house captain lets it happen, Montag makes it happen, and Mildred wonders what happened. It is really sad to think that some people just leave their future to chance rather than making a future that is better and leaving a path for future generations. Without a past one cannot hope for a future, the past allows one to learn and grow and make a future that is livable. If one does not learn from the past the same mistakes are likely to be made in the future, leading down a path of possible destruction. The twenty-first century is supposed to be the greatest century ever; however like the novel Fahrenheit 451 people are sacrificing knowledge and intellectual thought for an easier, simpler, thoughtless lifestyle. Alliteracy and Illiteracy is something that is passed down through generations, inevitably sacrificing the knowledge to be able to read for an entire family. Fifty-nine percent of people from a survey done by NDP group in 1991 stated that they read less than ten books the previous year (Weeks 522). America has prided itself on being a literate first world country, whereas, it has been building an environment where reading is not required. With the technology in the world today children and teens spend most of their time playing video games, watching TV, or using social networking sites rather than reading a book. Then the parents allow the children to watch movies or play the video game before bed instead of reading them a story. There was a time when writers were celebrated for their works, but now people chose to celebrate actors, singers, and athletes instead. Acting, singing, and athletics are also very important to society but they are no cause to push out writing and reading. Weeks explains a lecture given by Kylene Beers. This lecture explains the two types of reading, efferent which is purposeful reading, and aesthetic which is for the joy of it. In order to be a good reader Beers believes people have to be able to visualize the text they are reading (Weeks 525). One of the reasons there are books and movies is to allow the audience to escape to a world that is unlike this, travel back in time, and to be the hero of the story. The only difference between movies and books is that books allow the person to feel as if they are one of the characters in the story, and that is something movies are unable to portray. If one spends all of their time skimming through books during school and then never even looking at it outside of school, then they are less likely to read to their children or teach their children how to read, sacrificing that knowledge not only for themselves but for their children. When most people think of an illiterate person they do not believe their illiteracy can cause them to suffer both mentally and physically. One thing nobody can deny is that the number of illiterate citizens in the America is on the rise. Illiterates are often lost in this nation of fast paced economics and rapidly changing technology. Illiterates are unable to do some of what seems to be the most simplistic of tasks to a literate person. For example most illiterates are unable to read newspaper article, words on the TV, voting ballots, menus in a restaurant, or their child’s report card. Those kinds of things can upset the individual emotionally but they do not cause any real suffering. The biggest concern when it comes to illiterates is when they are unable to read prescription instructions or warning labels, this can cause some serious harm to them if they overdose or ingest

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Describe and explain the different stages of American policy toward Essay

Describe and explain the different stages of American policy toward China during the Cold War - Essay Example The first years of the Cold War are notoriously difficult to pinpoint since although the United States was against communism in the earlier years of the 20th century, it was allied with the Soviet Union during World War II in defeat of Germany and Japan. Therefore it is most common to claim the beginning of the Cold War as occurring in those years after World War II when the United States explored its options in terms of dealing with all communist countries (Wala 168). With specific reference to China, the United States spent the early 1950's deciding how to proceed with a Chinese nuclear disarmament plan. The following decade was dedicated to the war between North and South Vietnam, a conflict that gave further rise to unfriendly relations between the United States and China. While China supported the communist regime of North Vietnam, the United States supported South Vietnam in its efforts to establish a democracy. The Vietnam War was in essence a mirror of the non-violent conflict raging between the United States and China, and both countries saw the war as a way to manifest its own beliefs and prove one way or the other that theirs was the superior political strategy. In fighting for South Vietnam and providing troops with arms, the United States hoped to instill democracy in the nation and actually win over communism. The Chinese government felt exactly the same way about its involvement with North Korea and the installation of a communist government. The Vietnam War marked the pinnacle of the hostilities between the United States and China during the first stage of the Cold War period (Wiest 19-23). China and the Soviet Union were close allies immediately following the Second World War, and while the USSR took a central role in the spread of communist ideals on the international level, China's responsibility was to spearhead and Eastern revolution whereby all of Asia was hoped to be made communist (Ross 71-80). The influence of China was difficult to ignore both for the USSR and the United States simply because it was such a massive, populated country. When China became allied with the USSR, the United States government was confronted with the realization that it might be overwhelmed by the combined political and military influence of these communist states, and so when the opportunity came to ally itself with China, America took it. In the early 1970's US President Nixon took advantage of the wish of the Chinese government, headed by Mao Zedong, to establish more friendly relations with the United States. Despite the communist status of China, the major irritation to the democratic American government was the continued success of the communist Soviet Union and therefore Nixon and Zedong understood how an alliance could benefit them (Harding 391-395). Both America and China were experiencing issues with the Soviet government at this time, and although China and the USSR were both communist countries, the former had decided to change the focus of its political and economic appeal. This rapprochement is considered one of the contributing factors in the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. In 1979 China and the US announced a full return to their diplomatic relations, and on this milestone US President

Friday, November 1, 2019

Research Paper about Marijuana legalization - Criminal Justice Studies

About Marijuana legalization - Criminal Justice Studies - Research Paper Example This research paper is therefore important for identifying whether or not alternative responses to the social, economic and health issues linked to marijuana may be more appropriate. This research paper therefore proposes to identify the social, economic and health issues linked to the abuse of marijuana and whether or not the cost of decriminalizing marijuana is proportionate to these issues. I chose this topic because I have personally observed friends who use marijuana regularly. Some of these friends function no differently than friends who do not use marijuana. Some of these friends however appear to be lackadaisical and unmotivated and do not function productively. I found the disparity in my friends’ functioning interesting and wondered if the different reactions to marijuana use influence the controversy over whether or not marijuana use should be controlled by legislation. This research is conducted by a review of the literature on the pros and cons of legalising mari juana and the literature on the social, economic and health consequences of marijuana use. ... Significance of the Study 10 VI.Research Methodology 10 VII.Organization of the Study 11 Chapter Two 13 A Review of the Literature 13 I.Introduction 13 A.Public Opinion 13 B.Legal Issues 16 C.Economic Issues 18 D.Social and Health Costs 22 II.Conclusion 25 Chapter Three 26 Research Methodology 26 Chapter Four 29 Results and Analysis 29 I.Results 29 A.Semi-Structured Interviews 29 B.Questionnaires 31 III.Conclusion 35 IV.Strengths of the Research 36 V.Weaknesses of the Research 36 VI.Areas for Future Research 36 Bibliography 41 Chapter One Introduction to the Study I. Introduction An increase in marijuana use during the 1990s has given way to an intensification of the debate on the legalization of marijuana (Strang, Wilton, & Hall, 2000). Proponents in favor of legalizing marijuana argue that marijuana is harmless when used as a recreational drug and has therapeutic/medicinal value. Opponents of legalizing marijuana argue however, that marijuana should remain a banned substance since its use is harmful to personal health and to public safety (Strang, et. al., 2000). In more recent times the debate over the legalization of marijuana gained increasing currency with the medical community’s involvement. Within the medical community there was sufficient recognition of the medicinal value of marijuana to persuade some states to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. Medicinal marijuana is said to be an effective therapy for pain, nausea and vomiting linked to chemotherapy, excessive weight loss in AIDS patients and can help patients tolerate the side effects of some conventional treatments. Convinced of its medical value, between 1996 and

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Critical Examination of the change management implications the Essay

Critical Examination of the change management implications the retirement of Terry Leahy's (Chief Executive) will have on Tesco - Essay Example Since its conception, Tesco has taken advantage and tackled major changes which have contributed to its success. Many changes facing the organization involve entrance of more women in the workplace, big disposable income, advent of weekly shop and the cheap food policy which was adopted in Britain after Second World War. The Origins and Development of Change in Financial Management The change in the financial growth of Tesco originates from e-commerce business activities which started in 2000 according to Finch (p184). Tesco concentrated more on its non-food business including the e-commerce business. Since then the company’s market shares have rapidly and impressively improved in the twenty first century. The management of Tesco since in history has been using technology for effective change. Tesco came up with a project known as Prospect to establish the areas in which technology could improve operational performance. The supermarket has indulged in a store-opening programme r for maintaining its position as the leading supermarket in the UK. The departure of a chief executive from any company attracts huge expectations in as far as changes in management are concerned as suggested by Toni and Tonchia (p947). The change can positive or even unsetting one depending on the leaving chief executive influence. The retired chief executive officer of Tesco spent his career developing the organization to be the biggest grocer in Britain. However his successor Phillip Clarke, will face the challenge of either maintaining the position or braking the company. The retailer has a wide range of products ranging from food to furniture as well mortgages and motor scooters. It has several outlets including its headquarters in Cheshunt and its branches in china. Tesco customers include buyers of high-quality goods and of low-cost goods while stores range from mega-stores to corner shops. One of the major changes that have been encountered by the retailer since the retirem ent of Leahy is the financial management. Since the set up of a joint venture with Royal bank which was done Leahy’s predecessor, Tesco has been offering financial services. According to Anon (69), this section has rapidly grown offering services such as loans, insurance and credit cards. One of the financial changes includes the now fully owned Tesco Bank which is aiming at becoming a great competitor to other banks. So far Tesco is selling its financial products to almost six million customers. Last year, the retailer launched a range of mortgages and savings account while in the current year Tesco is planning to launch a current account. The retail organization also intends to capitalize the discontent of customers through their current jobs. A focus by Liz Hartley who is principle consultant indicates that Tesco Bank will be among the top ten best banks in the country within the next five years. However the growth of the bank is likely to cause more changes in the organiz ation since banks are valued in a very different way compared to retailer. Key Implications of the Change to the Organization The change in financial management of Tesco has brought with it different implications. These implications include: The implication of balancing the current cost of managerial time with the new suppliers benefits as well as how to cope with the existing suppliers. With the retirement of Leahy, Tesco financial managem

Monday, October 28, 2019

Gaskell North and South Essay Example for Free

Gaskell North and South Essay Gaskell’s ‘North and South’, set in Victorian England, is the story of Margaret Hale, a young woman whose life is completely turned on its head when her family moves to northern England. As an outsider from the agricultural south, Margaret is initially shocked by the aggressive northerners of the dirty, smoky industrial town of Milton, but as she adapts to her new home, she defies social conventions with her ready sympathy and defense of the working poor. Her passionate advocacy of the lower classes leads her to repeatedly clash with charismatic mill owner John Thornton over his treatment of his workers. While Margaret denies her growing attraction to him, Thornton agonizes over his foolish passion for her, in spite of their heated disagreements. As tensions mount between them, a violent unionization strike explodes in Milton, leaving everyone to deal with the aftermath in the town and in their personal lives. Gaskell’s novel could certainly be described as a social commentary; England at the time was extremely class-conscious, yet In almost all cases, Margaret does not so much choose sides as acknowledge mutually dependent and beneficial relationships. Though her family has very little in the way of money or assets, her family roots are in the gentry, yet when the family is moved up North to Milton, Margaret befriends and socializes with both ends of the social spectrum, mill owners and workers. Margaret is even capable of initiating a friendship of sorts between worker and owner, Higgins and Thornton even come up with a plan together to provide a canteen for the workers to get hot food. Differences in life in the South and life in the North are compared and contrasted often in a very subtle fashion, as are the differences in values and class structure. It is also very interesting to note that the difficulties of the lives of the impoverished factory workers are highlighted, however the difficulties faced by the factory owners are also presented. Through Margaret, Gaskell is able to transcend social class and at the same time create a hero amongst the industrial poverty of Milton, she acts in a way that would have been unconventional and frowned upon at the time for the good of such people as the Higgins family. When she is seen bringing a basket of food to the house during the workers strike, her peers condemn her at a dinner at the Thornton’s. Highlighting both the differences between northern and southern culture and the clashes between social conscientiousness. It could be said that ‘North and South’ is a novel defined by the resolution of binary conflicts; Margaret Hale is presented with a number of divisions of sympathy, between industrialists and the working class, between conflicting views of Mr.  Thornton, and even between her conflicting views of her own intelligence. Nancy Mann, in her essay â€Å"Intelligence and Self-Awareness in ‘North and South’: a Matter of Sex and Class† stipulates that the novel â€Å"concentrates on a crucial problem of the development of the novel in the nineteenth century, the relationship between abstract intelligence and self-awareness, and the ways in which this relationship may be affected by factors of sex and class†(1). What Mann is saying is that Gaskell is successful in throwing off the conventional boundaries of the classic romantic Victorian with all its feminist connotations and persuasions and has created a character that transcends the constraints of class and what is proper to actually do some good in her new environment. Gaskell’s most prominent social explorations however come in the form of contrasts. For example Margaret’s relationship with the Higgins family, especially Bessie, both nineteen years old when they meet, one healthy and the other gravely ill can be seen as a dramatic comment on class iniquity. Gaskell uses Bessie as a dramatic device in the novel to draw Margaret and her father closer, a task some literary critics consider to be so well done that Bessie is often discounted from the actual story. She is also a device to show the plight of the working class woman, Bessie is even described by one critic as ‘the most extensive portrait of a factory girl in the mainstream industrial novels, and as such, she reveals the political and economic tensions surrounding working class women'(2). Even Margaret says â€Å"Bessie’s comments address the specific problems of working-class women, problems that both unions and the middle class have an interest in ignoring. Even when Bessie’s religious beliefs and her questioning of unionism are considered she is very revealing, Margaret sees her as having â€Å"a politics of her own† which both reveals her sense of disenfranchisement from the ongoing struggle between masters and men and presents the most telling evidence in the novel of the iniquities of the class system. Something else that has to be considered in this scenario with Bessie as a dramatic tool towards Gaskell’s social commentary Elizabeth Gaskells North and south: A National Bildungsroman. Victorian Newsletter 85 (1994) Briefly traces the emergence of and critical debate on the industrial novel, noting the industrial novels have been read largely in relation to male working-class history, not in relation to female working-class history or to the emerging nineteenth-century womens movement. The critic also goes on to stipulate that the comments on the patriarchal foundations of both Chartism and the union movement makes a case for the need to consider Marxist and feminist issues when considering the issues raised in north and south. He goes on to suggest that by placing her heroine, Margaret Hale, between North and South, Gaskell attempts to bring to the surface the unconscious bifurcations that produce class and gender ideologies and that because the novel is both a Bildungsroman as well as an industrial novel it acquires unusual dimensions in both categories(3). Feminism also plays a big part in Gaskell’s novel, through her three main characters, Margaret, Thornton and Higgins Gaskell shows a struggle for growth and indicates what the future of society may hold for people in similar situations and how society can grow as a whole. When the novel is examined as a debate on class and gender issues, the amount of time the characters spend arguing about word choices, definitions and analogies it is clear that almost all interactions in the novel are affected in some way by gender or class, even in language, every term that comes under debate is changed with class or gender import(4). With this much importance forced upon the character’s class and gender by their social environment a reader is certainly inclined to read the novel as an exploration into the Victorian class system rather than a conventional love story of the time. Even in Margaret’s romantic capacity as a woman, her gradual sexual awareness of John Thornton and their Marriage at the end of the novel is more understandable to read in a more feminist light than a romantic one. In marrying Thornton Margaret enters into a mutually equal relationship, one where her influence and goals will be felt as well as his, through Margaret, Gaskell subtly reveals the new directions women are taking toward independent action and freedom(5). However at the same time recognizing that the changes she undergoes are in no way revolutionary and that though the conflicting ideas of obedience and freedom are not completely settled by the end of the novel, at least one woman has emerged into responsible adulthood and has claimed her part in deciding the terms of that settlement(6). What is most interesting about this novel is that all the elements of a romantic novel are there, but it is written in a way that turns the readers head from the sentimental pride and prejudice Esq. prose and makes them focus on the environment and its social deficiencies â€Å"through this story of social rejection and Christian compassion, Gaskell charges her culture to replace what she sees as a rigid and reductive old testament ethic of charity(7). This idea of a old to new change in a religious sense is also backed by Gaskell’s own Unitarian background, her father was a Unitarian minister, as was her husband, Margaret’s father in the novel itself is also a minister it could even be suggested that Gaskells beliefs provided her with an alternative vision of society and code of behavior(8) the importance of Gaskells religious beliefs and Unitarianism can be found in many aspects of the novel, not least that Unitarianism believed in the cultivation of the intellect regardless of sex, she found the religious authority to challenge the patriarchal subjugation of women, especially those who failed to fulfill their designated role in society. It is ironic to think; in a period nearly defined by its theological doubt, Gaskells spiritual faith authorizes her revolutionary vision(9). When Mr. Thornton, without further verbal explication, proposes to Margaret in a â€Å"strange and presumptuous way† at the end of the novel, we see the proper structure of an intimate relationship, both sides respect each other’s power while Thornton refuses to impose a political hierarchy. This is emphasized by the exchange over the flowers, which he bought as a token of her independent self, which is a revolutionary idea in itself at this point in history and conversely, gives rise to his second comment referring to marriage as possession, saying he had â€Å"no hope of ever calling her mine†, and the second refutation of such terms. Although the novel does not strive at any point to be romantic at the expense of the real issues that Gaskell tackles in the way people lived at the time, their unspoken resolution to marry signifies the resolution of the novel the binding of two genders, halves of England, social classes, and individuals, into one. In conclusion Gaskell is very successful in going further than any of her peers in actually exploring deficiencies in Victorian culture and society, although the main components of a classic love story are there, Margaret opts for the conscientious, religious option at every turn making the novel more a serious social commentary than anything else. Gaskell’s religious persuasion adds to this in that it allows her to transcend the class system and her constraints as a woman in Victorian England to address these problems under the banner of religion.