Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Organization Learning Concept

Organization learning can be defined as organized acquiring of experience through controlled and managed trial of new strategies and intelligent use of the results to achieve the required objectives.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Organization Learning Concept specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This is because the more dynamic an organization is the higher the chances of maintaining its prowess in current volatile market. This paper discusses the importance of learning to an organization, the necessary requirements and examples of organizations which have used this concept to maintain their brands in the current competitive market. Importance of learning to an organization The employment of this strategy will enable a company or the business empires realize its mission and vision statements. This is because organization learning empowers every member of the organization towards a common goal. By either creati ng and trying new policies and strategies or learning and positively responding to current challenges the organizations can formulate mission and vision statements and incorporate everyone to achieve them. Learning organization creates new challenges to the management and all the employees. The employees feel part and parcel of the organization. This makes them believe to be part of the solution and not the problem. The shift from the tradition advertisement based on disseminating information is being replaced by interactive advertisement as seen in social site advertisement and employees are faced with new modern challenges. Learning and acting to these challenges becomes the dream of every employee. Due to the volatility of the current marked the only way for organizations to stay afloat is to embrace organization learning. They take time to learn and implement better methods of doing things due to the continual change in the society. Car manufacturing companies such as Toyota lea rn from changes in international policies on emissions and fuel efficiency to invent more efficient automobiles.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Necessary requirements An excellent communication system is essential in organization learning. A good communication structure is essential in disseminating information and knowledge throughout the whole organization from senior management to other levels of management, from one department to another and also forms one person to another. This is especially important in large organizations that have different branches in different areas. Employment of communication tools such as web conferencing, instant messaging, cell phones and others enhance passing of information and knowledge within the organization (Eijkman, n.d; Janakiraman, 2008). For an effective learning organization the kind of the work force matters a lot. Curious a nd intelligent people who have an intuitive thinking about work based problems are an advantage as suggested by Serrat: Intellectually curious about their work, who actively reflect on their experience, who develop experience-based theories of change and continuously test these in practice with colleagues, and who use their understanding and initiative to contribute to knowledge development. (Serrat, 2009, p. 1) Knowledge is one of the most important requirements for effective learning organization. Learning and knowledge cannot be separated. This is suggested by Serrat: Knowledge is a critical asset in every learning organization. Because learning is both a product of knowledge and its source, a learning organization recognizes that the two are inextricably linked and manages them knowledge should encompass both the individual and corporate knowledge (Serrat, 2009, p. 1) Technology is part and parcel of passing of information and knowledge in the organization. This is important in ensuring that there is effective communication and management of knowledge. The organizations must invest in terms of time, support personnel, relevant infrastructure, and expertise. These and other requirements are important in facilitating the learning process.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Organization Learning Concept specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Conclusion Learning organization is a very important concept for those organizations that want to remain in the market for long. Organizations learn from self made or prepared challenges or the challenges they face in order to brace themselves for the challenging future ahead. It is a very important concept that everyone should try. References Eijkman. H. (n.d.) The Learning Organization as concept and journal in the neo-millennial era: a plea for critical engagement. Web. Janakiraman. S. (2008) The Importance of being a Learning Organization. Web. Serrat O,(2009). Building a LearningOrganization. Web. This assessment on Organization Learning Concept was written and submitted by user JoantheMouse to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

The Tigris River of Ancient Mesopotamia

The Tigris River of Ancient Mesopotamia The Tigris River is one of two main rivers of ancient Mesopotamia, what is today modern Iraq. The name Mesopotamia means the land between two rivers, although perhaps it ought to mean the land between two rivers and a delta. It was the marshy lower ranges of the conjoined rivers that truly served as a cradle for the earliest elements of the Mesopotamian civilization, the Ubaid, in approximately 6500 BCE. Of the two, the Tigris is the river to the east (towards Persia, or modern Iran) while the ​Euphrates lies to the west. The two rivers run more or less parallel for their entire length through the rolling hills of the region. In some cases, the rivers have a rich wide riparian habitat, in others they are confined by a deep valley such as the Tigris as it rolls through Mosul. Together with their tributaries, the Tigris-Euphrates served as the cradle for the latter urban civilizations that evolved in Mesopotamia: the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, and Assyrians. At its heyday in the urban periods, the river and its human-constructed hydraulic systems supported some 20 million inhabitants. Geology and the Tigris The Tigris is the second largest river in Western Asia, next to the Euphrates, and it originates near Lake Hazar in eastern Turkey at an elevation of 1,150 meters (3,770 feet). The Tigris is fed from snow which falls annually over the uplands of northern and eastern Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. Today the river forms the Turkish-Syrian border for a length of 32 kilometers (20 miles) before it crosses into Iraq. Only about 44 km (27 mi) of its length flows through Syria. It is fed by several tributaries, and the major ones are the Zab, Diyalah, and Kharun rivers. The Tigris joins the Euphrates near the modern town of Qurna, where the two rivers and the river Kharkah create a massive delta and the river known as Shatt-al-Arab. This conjoined river flows into the Persian Gulf 190 km (118 mi) south of Qurna. The Tigris is 1,180 miles (1,900 km) in length. Irrigation through seven millennia has changed the course of the river. Climate and Mesopotamia There are steep differences between maximum and minimum monthly flows of the rivers, and the Tigris differences are the sharpest, nearly 80 fold over a period of a year. The annual precipitation in the Anatolian and Zagros highlands exceeds 1 meter (39 inches). That fact has been credited with influencing the Assyrian King Sennacherib to develop the worlds first stone masonry water control systems, some 2,700 years ago. Did the variable water flow of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers create the ideal environment for the growth of the Mesopotamian civilization? We can only speculate, but there is no doubt that some of the earliest urban societies blossomed there.   Ancient Cities on the Tigris: Baghdad, Nineveh, Ctesiphon, Seleucia, Lagash, and Basra.Alternate Names: Idigna (Sumerian, meaning running water); Idiklat (Akkadian); Hiddekel (Hebrew); Dijlah (Arabic); Dicle (Turkish). Source Altinbilek D. 2004. Development and management of the Euphrates–Tigris basin. International Journal of Water Resources Development 20(1):15-33.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

The conduct of the DEA was an unconstitutional exercise of Congress' Case Study

The conduct of the DEA was an unconstitutional exercise of Congress' Commerce Clause authority - Case Study Example (Rule) The term commerce as used in the Constitution means business or commercial exchanges in any and all of its forms between citizens of different states, including purely social communications between citizens of different states by telegraph, telephone, or radio, and the mere passage of persons from one state to another for either business or pleasure. Intrastate, or domestic, commerce is trade that occurs solely within the geographic borders of one state. As it does not move across state lines, intrastate commerce is subject to the exclusive control of the state. (Rule) (Application) Here, Jones' list of activities, to wit the intrastate, noncommercial cultivation, possession and use of marijuana for personal medical purposes on the advice of a physician is, in fact, different in kind from drug trafficking. Moreover, this limited use is clearly distinct from the broader illicit drug market insofar as the growing of marijuana at issue in this case is not intended for, nor does it enter, the stream of commerce.

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

BUSINESS FINANCE Assessment 1 Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4250 words

BUSINESS FINANCE Assessment 1 - Research Paper Example Q3) Face Value = $1000 N= 30 years Coupon rate = 8% (a) YTM if Price is $900. Since Price YTM > coupon rate. Price at 9%: 80 x PVIFA (9%, 25yr) + 80/ (1.09) ^26 + 80/ (1.09) ^27 + 80/ (1.09) ^28 + 80 / (1.09) ^29 + 1080/ (1.09)30 = $ 897.3 Price at 7%: 80 x PVIFA (7%, 25yr) + 80/ (1.07) ^26 + 80/ (1.07) ^27 + 80/ (1.07) ^28 + 80/ (1.07) ^29 + 1080/ (1.07)30 = $ 1123.8 Price at 8%: $1000 By interpolation, YTM = 8% + (1000-900)/ (1000-897.3) YTM = 8.97% (b) YTM if Price is $1000. Since Price = Face value YTM = Coupon Rate Hence YTM = 8%. (c) YTM if Price is $1,100 Since Price > Face Value YTM Price at 7% = $1123.8 Price at 9% = $897.3 By interpolation, YTM = 7% + (1123.8-1100)/ (1123.8-897.3) YTM = 7.11% (d) The relationship between yield to maturity and bond price is that the yield to maturity is that discount rate that makes the present value of the bond's coupon payments equal to its price. Q4) a) Eps = $6, r = 15%, ROE = 15%, G =, Price = (i) Plowback ratio = 0 % g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.15 x 0 g = 0% Po = Div/ r -g Since nothing is plowed back in the firm, all the earnings are given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 Po = 6/ 0.15-0 Po = $ 40 (ii) Plowback ratio = 40% g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.15 x 0.4 g = 0.06 or 6% Po = Div/ r -g Since 40% is plowed back, 60% is given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 x 0.6 = 3.6 Po = 3.6/0.15-0.06 Po = $ 40 (iii) Plowback ratio = 60% g = ROE x Plow back ratio = 0.15 x 0.6 g = 0.09 or 9% Po= Div/r-g Since 60 % is plowed back, 40% is given out as dividends, therefore Div = 6 x 0.4 = 2.4 Po = 2.4/ 0.15 - 0.09 Po = $ 40 b) Eps =$6, r =15%, ROE = 20%, g =, P = i) Plowback ratio 0% g = ROE x Plowback ratio = 0.2 x 0 g = 0% Po =... Since project E has the highest profitability index, it should be chosen first and then project C. Since the investment budget is of $ 8 million, investing in these two projects would also equal to $ 8 million. Since X Ltd has a higher standard deviation, it means there is more risk and a greater variation of returns and thus a high chance that the expected return will not originate. Co-efficient of variance is another measure of determining riskiness of a business and since X Ltd also has a higher co-efficient of variance, it signifies that it's a more risky business. Thus 100% investment in Y Ltd is a better investment. Other than that, if recession hits the economy, X Ltd will completely go out of business. This is one more reason for not opting for investment in X Ltd. d) Value investors are those who use dividends to value their investments. Regular income is wanted by them and they look for quality companies with earnings records and projects they believe the market has under-valued. They tend to hold the under valued stocks for a longer duration and eventually take advantage of the rise in share price that the earnings growth brings in the long run. Growth investors are those who use stock prices to value their investments.

Sunday, November 17, 2019

A Significant Problem of the Airline Industry and the Profitability of Research Paper

A Significant Problem of the Airline Industry and the Profitability of the Company - Research Paper Example The Rivalry is a major factor that influences the operation of a business in the industry. At present, there are 10 best budget airlines operating in Asia that has been rated by Smart Asia Travel, an online travel magazine (, 2008) as Asia’s top 10 budget airlines. On the basis of cheap tickets, reliable schedules, decent service, route network and access, Air Asia has been rated number one by this travel magazine. Other budget airlines that follow are Jetstar Asia, Nok Air, Tiger Airways, Cebu Pacific, Virgin Blue, Air Deccan, Spice Jet, Viva Macau and Hongkong Express. Rivalry among the budget airlines is considered intense because of its big number that competes for the same number of customers and market shares. Thus, there is a continuing race for leadership in budget airlines. Others reasons that intensify rivalry among budget airlines are the high fixed costs that require airlines to implement strategies to attract passengers and fill the airlines into the ful l capacity to attain the lowest cost per unit. High fixed cost is required in operating an airline, thus Air Asia needs to sell to a large number of passengers in order to attain profitability. This situation leads to the increased rivalry. Because of these high fixed costs, a firm finds it hard to make an exit in the industry. Take, for example, the situation of Air Asia that incurred huge losses before 2001 when it was owned by the government. The takeover of Tony Fernandez, a private investor revived the business and steered it to profitability.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Economics of Energy: Shale Oil

Economics of Energy: Shale Oil Economics of Energy As every nation endures the global recession, countries invest on various types of energy sources that offer the maximum benefits. There are many variations on energy that can be used such as solar energy, nuclear energy, wind-generated energy and shale oil reserves. Each type of energy has different economic benefits. At present times, shale oil reserves are to watch out for. Shale oil reserves are usually undeveloped given that the process of extracting its oil is a difficult process. However, the latest technology unfolds the overwhelming potential of shale oil exploration. The accessibility of shale oil resources across the globe and the effect of increased shale oil production have influence that extends further than the rest of competitors in energy industry. In contrast, other sources of energy offer economic benefits as well but only differ with costs incurred. Among all energy sources, nuclear energy helps to reduce air pollution, balance the Earths weather, avoid acid rain, and depletion of ozone layer. Nuclear power plants are environment-friendly source of energy. There are many economic benefits of using nuclear power plants. Nuclear power plants are a good source of income while it incurs low costs on operation. In the United States, it is their second largest source of power. Aside from stability in future price, it also avoids the import on fuel. Although the economic benefits of nuclear power are great, the hype on shale oil exploration overshadows the nuclear industry. As many nuclear power plants are offline, most of them would find it easier to build new turbines for gas exploration than repair nuclear reactors. According to the Climate News Network in London, most of the nuclear reactors in the United States and Canada are shutting down since shale gas produces cheaper power (Brown, 2013, para.1). Moreover, the investment costs required for nuclear power plant is higher compared to shale oil exploration. Hence, the economic benefits of shale gas are better than nuclear power. Another source of energy is the solar power. This type of energy captures the photovoltaic cells that transform sunlight into electrical energy. Its edge among other sources of energy is that sunlight is free; hence, its energy is infinitely renewable. In the future, the cost of solar power is expected to decline below market price. To compare solar energy and shale gas, the latter has many variables to consider on its relevant costs such as land costs, drilling costs, corporate overhead and others. Hence, solar energy is more economic than shale gas when it comes to expenditures. Lastly, wind-generated energy is also an alternative source of electricity. Wind turbines convert the wind that passes through the blades into electricity. One of the challenges on wind energy industry is its disadvantage on costs. Its technology needs a hi gher amount of initial outlay than fossil fuels. Hence, shale gas is more cost-competitive compared to wind-generated electricity. Economic Costs and Profits of Shale Oil Exploration Computation for economic costs basically includes explicit costs, real costs and opportunity costs (, 2012, n.p.). On the other hand, economic profit is the difference between revenue and costs incurred. In this section, the economic costs are cash outlays, opportunity costs, transportation expense to China and Beijing Costs, Insurance and Freight (CFI). Below is a table of the writer’s own model of economic costs and profits of shale exploration (Figure 1). The figures are rounded off to the nearest whole number. Economic Costs and Profit for Shale Oil Exploration Total Revenue $ 12,000,000,000.00 Explicit Costs Pipeline costs Materials $ 8,000,000.00 Miscellaneous Expenses $ 1,000,000.00 $ 9,000,000.00 Land (934400 acres x $ 5000 per acre) $ 4,600,000,000.00 Well Cost (50 wells x $5,000,000 rate per well) $ 250,000,000.00 Drilling Costs $ 14,000,000.00 Transportations Costs (Cost Insurance Freight to Beijing, China) (6000 trucks x $8000 rate per truck) $ 48,000,000.00 $ 4,921,000,000.00 Total Explicit Costs Real Costs Labor $ 11,500,000.00 Total Real Cost $ 11,500,000.00 Opportunity Costs Opportunity Costs $ 50,000,000.00 Total Opportunity Costs $ 50,000,000.00 Total Economic Costs $ 4,982,500,000.00 Total Economic Profit $ 7,017,500,000.00 Figure 1. Sample Model of Total Economic Costs and Profit for Shale Oil Exploration In Figure 1, the figures indicated are merely estimates through extensive research. In the explicit costs, the costs incurred are for pipeline, land, well, drilling and transportations. These are costs that are directly attributed to the shale gas exploration. The estimates used for rate per acre, well, and truck are average computation for each account. Secondly, real cost includes all the labor costs incurred to extract oil from the shale. Lastly, the opportunity cost pertains to the amount which could have been earned using other alternatives such as nuclear power plant and so on. In the illustration, total revenue exceeds the total costs incurred which results to an economic profit of $7 Billion. Hence, the model shows a cash-generating shale oil exploration. The next illustration (Figure 2) shows the extended model of Figure 1. Expanded Computation for Economic Cost and Profit of Shale Oil Exploration Total Revenue $ 12,000,000,000.00 Total Economic Costs $ 4,982,500,000.00 Other Costs Decommission Cost Waste Disposal costs $ 384,500,000.00 Labor $ 568,050,000.00 Used-fuel Storage costs $ 211,230,000.00 $ 1,163,780,000.00 Operation or Fracking Expense $ 1,230,500,000.00 Construction Expense $ 805,080,000.00 Total Economic Cost $ 8,181,860,000.00 Total Economic Profit $ 3,818,140,000.00 Figure 2. Expanded Computation for Economic Cost and Profit of Shale Oil Exploration In Figure 2, the amounts from Figure 1 are retained and only the other costs account is added as well as operation or fracking cost and construction expense. The marginal cost is computed by dividing the change in total cost by change in total quantity of shale oil (AmosWEB, 2014, para.4). Hence, $ 8,181,860,000.00 $ 4,982,500,000.00 is $3199360000. Change in total quantity pertains to the change in output of shale oil extraction. For instance, a company can extract 100,000 tons of shale oil in a year and doubles for the succeeding years. Below is the computation for marginal cost per year. Change in Costs Change in Quantity Marginal Cost 1st year 3199360000 100,000 31993 2nd year 3199360000 200,000 15996 3rd year 3199360000 400,000 7998 4th year 3199360000 800,000 3999 5th year 3199360000 1,600,000 1999 Figure 3. Computation for Marginal Cost Figure 3 is a chart on computing for marginal cost. The numerator is the change in costs divided by the denominator which is the change in tons of shale oil. Energy Forecast Energy Forecast on UAE from 2014 to 2020 Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel 2003 26.74 2014 120.76 2004 33.46 2015 128.86 2005 49.49 2016 136.97 2006 61.43 2017 145.07 2007 68.37 2018 153.17 2008 93.78 2019 161.28 2009 61.75 2020 169.38 2010 78.06 2011 106.03 2012 108.9 2013 105.43 Figure 4. Energy Forecast on UAE from 2014 to 2020 In Figure 4, the amounts from the year 2003 up to 2013 are data released by World Bank Commodity Price Data (Knoema, 2013). Following the past trends on Dubai’s oil prices, the next 6 six years are forecasts through the Microsoft Excel’s trend function. The illustration shows a forecast of the increasing oil price in the next 6 years. UAE’s oil price is to increase by $7-$9. Comparative Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US UAE UK United States Year Dollar Price per Oil Barrel 2003 26.74 28.85 31.11 2004 33.46 38.3 41.44 2005 49.49 54.43 56.44 2006 61.43 65.39 66.04 2007 68.37 72.7 72.28 2008 93.78 97.64 99.56 2009 61.75 61.86 61.65 2010 78.06 79.64 79.43 2011 106.03 110.94 95.05 2012 108.9 111.97 94.16 2013 105.43 108.86 97.94 2014 120.76 123.61 109.21 2015 128.86 131.63 115.36 2016 136.97 139.65 121.52 2017 145.07 147.66 127.67 2018 153.17 155.68 133.83 2019 161.28 163.70 139.98 2020 169.38 171.72 146.14 Figure 5. Comparative Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US Figure 6.Bar Graph of Energy Forecast on UAE, UK and US Figure 5 illustrates the past and future forecasts on the oil prices of UAE, UK and the United States. Using the past trends on oil prices of these countries, a forecast for the next 6 years is made. The same method of computation has been made similar to Figure 5. Its summary on Figure 6, UK has the highest amount of oil price in the next 6 years while UAE falls second. Although United States has usually the highest price of oil in the last 10 years, UK started to lead starting 2012 until now. Hence, both United States and UAE has to improve more in terms of their energy economics to surpass UK’s performance in energy industry. References Brown, P. (2013, February 13).Shale gas kills nuclear power | Climate News Network. Retrieved from> (2012).Concept of Economic Costs Explict Cost Implict Cost- Real Cost Oppotunity Cost Definition and Example RetrievedJanuary24, 2014, from> Knoema (2013, October).Crude Oil Prices Forecast: Long Term to 2025 | Data and Charts RetrievedJanuary25, 2014, from> Marginal Cost, AmosWEB Encyclonomic WEB*pedia,, AmosWEB LLC, 2000-2014. Retrieved January 24, 2014>. Theory of mind: Autism Theory of mind: Autism The term theory of mind in cognitive psychology allows individuals to describe and understanding of other individuals metal state about their beliefs or thoughts no individual can be certain what another individual is thinking but can have a good understand in what they may believe what they are thinking or about their thoughts Baron-Cohen (1997) theory of mind is exclusive to humans and allows humans to have a better understanding about the social world around and allows individuals to interact with other individuals in appropriate way Baron-Cohen (2003) Autism is a developmental disorder which occurs in the first 2 years of the Childs life and can affect approximately four in every ten thousand children (Baron-Cohen, Leslie Frith, 1985), the disorder is more four times more likely for a boy to have the disorder than a girl (Gilberg and Coleman, 1992; Rapin, 1997). An individual who has the disorder may find it hard to interact with another individuals and find it hard to understand what they are saying or understand the emotion of behaviour from another individual that also cannot understand their inner self and the other individuals thoughts and believes. Early signs of autism in a child cannot keep eye-to eye contact with another individual for a long period of time. (Swettenham et al., 1998) Also they cannot spontaneously play with a toy because it may be the fact their disorder cannot let them understand what the toy does. A study took place where individuals where ask to sort out pictures giving to the by category, children wi th the artistic disorder sorted the pictures out by objects example hat scarf (weeks and Hobson, 1987) this shows that not all social communication is impaired but they have little understanding of what is being asked of them. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task(Baron-Cohen et al., 1997). Baron-Cohen et al. (1997, 2001a, 2001b) showed some individuals pictures of peoples eyes and where giving four different type of words describing emotion this study was allocated to individuals with autism and also individuals without the disorder but show some signs of the autistic disorder. Baron-Cohen et al. (1997) believes that is a pure test of theory of mind and believes that the results from this study can be an in sight to see if an individual has got the autistic disorder. Children without the disorder start to use the terms think and want this shows they have some understanding of their inner self Most autistics children are delayed in learning a langue which can lead them to make new words up which is called neologising this make it harder for them understand communication and participate in social chat with other individuals Rutter (1987). An autistic individual finds it hard to keep up with the subject of conversation and also shows in ability to use feedback which (Bailey et al., 1996). Children at the age 2 Â ½ can to understand pretend play and the thoughts of other people when as children with autism have mind blindness this is an inability for them to understand social interactions which the individual finds it hard to develop a loving relationship with another individual. The disorder makes the individual find it hard to understand how some else is feeling and its difficult for the autistic individual to interact with another individual with out warning and may feel cold or distant towards other individuals. (Karmiloff-Smith, 1988, 1992) believes that all children explore the environment around them and automatically think of hypothesis and testing them this allows them. The social problems which under go in everyday life which autistic individuals have to face in everyday life, there has been studies which have been created to see if the problems they occur are related to the theory of mind. The Sally- Ann test false belief task was created to see if the individual on going the task had theory of mind skills or not. A child was introduced to two dolls called sally and Ann and where allocated with their own box with a marble hidden inside of it. The child was then told that sally has to go for a minute removing her from the scene and leaving her box behind this. The child is then told Ann is going to play a trick on sally and removes the marble from sallys box. Sally is then returned and the child is then asked where sally should look for the marble. A child with theory of mind will remember that sally doesnt know where her marble is and unaware that it is missing and will look it sallys box by using worlds for example he thinks however a child lacki ng theory of mind skills will only see it from her point of view and would look in Anns box Baron-Cohen, Leslie, and Frith (1985) Many children passed this false belief test which have the autism disorder. Nearly 80 percent of artistic children failed this task which shows that most of the children taking part have not got the inner ability to understand other peoples thought and emotions. Baron- Cohen et als (1992 brought out a checklist for autism to see if any children have the autistic disorder to allow parents or guardians to find out in case of the risk of developing the disorder. The most common signs of autism is mental retardation is most common with 75% of all cases (Rutter, 1979; Rapin, 1997) there is no strong evidence to prove autism is inherited disorder (Rutter, 1994) Autism is clearly understood as a developmental disorder which makes it difficult for that individual to express him/her self and find it hard to understand any other individuals feelings or understand that they can feel emotions and think thoughts. There is not enough evidence to suggest that theory of mind can allow us to understand about autism to its full potential and that theory of mind describes the disorder to where it is completely understood.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Social Issues in Toni Morrisons The Bluest Eye :: Toni Morrison The Bluest Eye

The Bluest Eye Social Issues With The Bluest Eye, Morrison has not only created a story, but also a series of painfully accurate impressions. As Dee puts it "to read the to ache for remedy" (20). But Morrison raises painful issues while at the same time managing to reveal the hope and encouragement beneath the surface. A reader might easily conclude that the most prominent social issue presented in The Bluest Eye is that of racism, but more important issues lie beneath the surface. Pecola experiences damage from her abusive and negligent parents. The reader is told that even Pecola's mother thought she was ugly from the time of birth. Pecola's negativity may have initially been caused by her family's failure to provide her with identity, love, security, and socialization, ail which are essential for any child's development (Samuels 13). Pecola's parents are able only to give her a childhood of limited possibilities. She struggles to find herself in infertile soil, leading to the analysis of a life of sterility (13). Like the marigolds planted that year, Pecola never grew. The concept of physical appearance as a virtue is the center of the social problems portrayed in the novel. Thus the novel unfolds with the most logical responses to this overpowering impression of beauty: acceptance, adjustment, and rejection (Samuels 10). Through Pecola Breedlove, Morrison presents reactions to the worth of physical criteria. The beauty standard that Pecola feels she must live up to causes her to have an identity crisis. Society's standard has no place for Pecola, unlike her "high yellow dream child" classmate, Maureen Peals, who fits the mold (Morrison 62). Maureen's influence in the novel is important. "She enchanted the entire school... black girls stepped aside when she wanted to use the sink in the girl's toilet... She never had to search for anybody to eat with in the cafeteria--they flocked to the table of her choice" (62-63). In contrast, Pecola's classmates insult her black skin by chanting "Black e mo Black e mo Ya daddy sleeps nekked/ stch ta ta stch ta ta" (65). The most damaging interracial confrontation related to color involves Pecola and an adult, Geraldine (Samuels 12). When Pecola enters Geraldine's home at the invitation of her son, Geraldine forces her to leave with words that hurt deeply, saying "Get out... You nasty little black bitch. Get out of my house" (92).

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Unbelievable Horrors

Aorta Criminal Justice Administration 201 American Military University Skinnier Nikkei Abstract In recent years, the lawmakers and criminal Justice experts have conveyed alarm regarding the growing prison population in elder prisons, along with the crumbling prison structures housing these inmates. While a majority of individuals agree this issue warrants immediate attention, the concurrence diminishes about how to attack this problem.A review of decisions set into place with laws, it has become clear that monetary confinements of elder prisons have become invisible barriers to the bargaining table. The paper compares the cost of renovating elder prisons to the costs of creating new facilities. This autopsy of decisions delves into the financial aspects of closing down older structures and whether or not it was cost beneficial. The numerous facilities coming into the â€Å"over-the-hill† age require an extensive examination to prevent monetary waste in the future. A Review of Decisions The dark side of humanity has existed for millennia.Some would contend that murder is the darkest, vial atrocity blanketing humanity. From the first documented Biblical fratricide involving Cain and Able, to recent homicides plaguing the media outlets, mankind has struggled to prevent these unbelievable horrors and reprimand the convicted. Society did not want these individuals roaming freely, as their unspeakable crimes invoked fear in the mind of every law-abiding citizen. Thus, structures were erected to cage the criminals and further prevent crimes against humanity. As time went on, more and more structures were needed to house the influx of criminals.Existing facilities were running beyond capacity and some were in deed of dire repair. The question put forth was, â€Å"Is it financially practical to renovate existing structures or to build entirely new ones? † Additional costs factors, such as food, clothing, healthcare, and educational programs, were itemized and incorporated into that equation. Converting elder prisons with substantial monetary confinements may and may not be the best practical solution. Looking into the closure of the Eastern State Penitentiary the following questions can be answered: 1 .Was it practical to close the Eastern State Penitentiary? 2. Is it financially beneficial to e-open the Eastern State Penitentiary? 3. Why build new facilities? 4. What are the plans for abandoned U. S. Prisons? Understanding the true reason for this prison closure could answer future questions regarding taking a facility out of operation. Whether it is a court-ordered ruling due to cruel and unusual punishment or asbestos issues creating a health concern, it is necessary to truly evaluate the closure and expose monetary waste. Incarceration as a form of punishment was first documented in the 1st millennia BC in the early civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Suspected or guilty criminals awaited their death sentence or command to be come a slave in underground facilities labeled dungeons. The Ancient Romans adopted even harsher methods of incarceration by building prisons exclusively underground with tight walkways and cells in pitch darkness. (Prison History. N. D. ). Time gave way to incarceration reform and the world's first true prison, the Eastern State Penitentiary, was opened in 1829.Abandoning corporal punishment and harsh treatment of the inmates, the Eastern State Penitentiary was designed with complete and solitary confinement in mind to alp the criminal move to reflection and change their criminal ways. Was it practical to close the Eastern State Penitentiary? Situated on 11 acres near downtown Philadelphia, PA, the Eastern State Penitentiary was considered the most expensive American building during the sass's and soon became the most famous prison in the world.The design, o'clock wings radiating outward from a central rotunda, allowed each o'clock with â€Å"central heat, running water, a flush t oilet, and a skylight. † Additionally, each o'clock had an adjacent â€Å"private out door exercise yard contained by a 10-foot high wall. (U. S. History. Org. N. D. ). Originally built to hold 300 inmates, by the sass's, it was forced to house over 2,000. Due to the costs of the inflated prison population, the subsequent cells, even those built underground, did not have skylights, lighting, or flushing toilets.By the sass's, over 130 years after it was erected, the Eastern State Penitentiary was outdated and in need of extensive repairs. The neo-Gothic exterior has weathered the tests of time; however, the electrical and mechanical systems inside of the prison walls were deteriorating. The monetary resources needed to ring the structure back to its momentum were too vast and in 1971, the state of Pennsylvania closed the doors to the once famous prison. (Woodman, 2008). Is it financially beneficial to re-open the Eastern State Penitentiary?The city of Philadelphia, PA acquire d the title to the Eastern State Penitentiary for $400,000 in 1984. Plans for redevelopment of the site were halted by pleas to then-Mayor Goode and all proposals were rejected for commercial use. In 1988, the first limited tours were given at the abandoned prison. The Pew Charitable Trusts held fundraisers to obtain financial resources for the preservation of the National Historic Landmark. These efforts began in 1991. (Easterner. Org, n. D. ) The trickle of money into the preservation and restoration of the prison filtered in at a snail's pace.With the help of another fundraiser, the Eastern State raised over $5 million dollars in 2009. According to Annie Major, author of â€Å"Do We Really Still Need the Eastern State Penitentiary? â€Å", states $2 million dollars of the $5 million was spent â€Å"to conserve the prison synagogue, the Brillion millions, the print-shop roof, ND sections of the floor, perimeter wall and lights. † (Major, 2011). (One of the reasons the pri son closed was due to the electrical systems needing repair. She expresses concern with the constant money pit of renovations, Just to keep the prison alive for the sake of tours. She feels at this rate, â€Å"the Eastern State could be a century-long, multi-million dollar project; one that will leave in our midst a fully restored, inoperative 19th-century prison. † The plan is not to re-build the prison but the end goal is to keep it in a â€Å"maintainable† ruin. According to the website, Radiochemical. Mom, the prison is a â€Å"safe place to be since it is so old it has no lead paint or asbestos. † (Radiochemical. Com, n. D. ).Imagining the repairs that were completed with $2 million dollars, it isn't difficult to figure out that the costs of bringing the prison back to a full-scale operational facility would take less monetary resources than building a completely new prison. With the absence of asbestos and lead, thereby depleting the need for even more fin ancial resources, bringing the prison back to handle over-crowding in other locations may not take as much money as once suspected. However, that isn't what is currently planned for the state of Pennsylvania. Why build new facilities?The current Governor of Pennsylvania, Tom Corbett, and the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections Secretary John Went have allocated $400 million dollars on two 4,100-bed facilities and construction has already begun. The elder prison these two are replacing, Aggregated, had accepted the inmates from Eastern State. Governor Corbett and Secretary Wendell will not release the figures it would take to renovate Aggregated, only stating that the state of Pennsylvania will â€Å"save money by alluding more efficient facilities. † (Decelerate PA, n. D. ). The monetary costs of renovating the Eastern State Penitentiary has also been withheld.In the sass's, when the decision was made to close the structure, the future prison population was unforeseen. Alt hough, based on Eastern State's experience with over-crowding, officials at that time knew there would not be enough space to house the influx of inmates. Yet, looking into the possibility of turning the Eastern State Penitentiary into a â€Å"super-Max† prison or a facility house only those on Pennsylvania death row would have been reviewed. The Eastern State prison could also have been used to house only those individuals for short-term prison sentences or the most violent, repeat offenders the state of Pennsylvania has witnessed.Now, there are two existing structures that could very well be renovated at a fraction of the costs of two new facilities. One is still in operation and the other is only open for public tours. Factor in the yearly operating costs statewide of all Pennsylvania prisons, there is a need to drastically curb waste and prevent unnecessary correctional structures. The fiscal year of 2010 brought about a $1. 6 billion dollar price tag for Pennsylvania pri son expenditures. 22% of this figure was outside of the normal prisons operating costs. (Vera. Org, 2012).The average cost, per year, to house over 48,000 inmates was $42,339 per inmate. Adding to the $1. 6 billion dollars is the $400 million for two new facilities, thereby costing the average taxpayer over $3,000. (Vera. Org, 2012). Looking at other ways to significantly decrease the burdens placed on the taxpayers by housing, feeding, educating, and reforming the ballooning prison population, there needs to be a more thorough examination into allocating millions of dollars for new prisons instead of renovating existing structures. What are the plans for abandoned U. S. Prisons?Numerous prison facilities nationwide have been closed and/or abandoned in favor of more modern and spacious correctional facilities. Some of these locations have turned into utter wastelands. Take for instance, the Old Essex County Prison in Newark, N. J. As a testament to time, the unabated decay has turne d into a haven of drug addicts finding refuge in the old prison cells. Condemning the property will not reverent serious injury or death and its negligence is far too severe to be restored structurally. Another location that sits idle is the former Missouri State Penitentiary.This prison opened its doors in 1831 and was fully operational for 168 years. (Longer than the Eastern State Penitentiary. ) It finally closed its doors in 2004. The monetary confinements by the state prevented any type of serious renovations and public tours began in 2006. (As of 01 October 2013, the public tours have been suspended due to a site assessment finding mold in sections of the prison. ) Due to the state of Missouri lading the title to the property and a dwindling economy, the future looks very bleak for â€Å"the bloodiest 47 acres west of the Mississippi. Lastly, the West Virginia State Penitentiary in Mountainside, W. V. Opened for operations 1876. Through its history, the West Virginia State Pe nitentiary made the United States Department of Corrections Top Ten Most Violent Correctional Facilities. In 1986, the West Virginia State Supreme Court ruled that the ex. foots cells were deemed cruel and unusual punishment. 9 years later, in 1995, the West Virginia State Penitentiary closed its doors for good. Today, public tours of the facility are the only operations occurring at this once notorious prison.As structures age and the prison population continues to increase, more and more facilities are being ushered in to deal with this revolving door off problem. Left in the wake are structurally sound buildings with very little to no use to the state or the cities they sit in. Other than daily public tours and haunted houses every Halloween, these buildings could have potential to save the taxpayers of the state millions of dollars annually. Instead of wasteful spending to build new facilities, existing ones an be renovated to comply with current federal and state laws at half t he cost.

Friday, November 8, 2019

A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Example

A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Example A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay A Study of Power Projects in Ravi Basin in Chamba District Essay Dams have had serious impacts on the lives, livelihoods, culture and spiritual existence of indigenous, tribal and illiterate people, and on the physical environmental conditions and biodiversity. As far as the dam related developmental activities in Himalaya Himalayas are concerned, they got momentum during 5th five year plan and at present there are more than 400 power projects in five perennial river basins spread over 55,673 sq. Km geographical area. Every basin is being excessively exploited which has a considerable impact on environment and threatening the lives and livelihood of the mountain inhabitants. The present paper is based on the primary research carried out in Rave basin of the state. There are ore than 80 power projects of different magnitudes in 40 rivulets that have been earmarked for the planned development and received detrimental impact on the available traditional knowledge because of multiple reasons. In the present paper the responsibility of hydroelectric power projects for threatening the existing traditional knowledge which are serving social, cultural, spiritual, and economic aspects of communities since ages but with the installation of developmental projects these are being threaten, will be analyzed which is based on original micro lied research carried out in the lower Himalayan Region by using exploratory, descriptive and participatory method of research. To analyses the impacts on 03 commissioned power projects, 500 respondents from 55 villages divided in seven research cluster, selected by cluster convince simple random sampling methods have been used. Received data codified, interpreted by applying suitable statistical tools. KEYWORDS: hydroelectric power projects; traditional knowledge; environment, ecosystem services, impact on livelihood. Http://www. Tar]. In 65 INTRODUCTION environmental conditions and biodiversity. Throughout human history natural resources have been exploited to sustain growing human populations. Over the last few decades, rising economic growth rates in most developing countries have contributed to increasing levels of exploitation of natural resources and environment degradation, which unchecked could have detrimental effects on future growth patterns. The increase in the world energy demand forced to increase generation of energy from various sources. By 2100 global mean-temperatures are forecasted to be raised by 1. 4 to 5. Degree centigrade with an accompanying increase in global mean- precipitation levels [2]. The increase demand of energy can be met by increasing hydrophone generation [2]. Global hydrophone production currently supplying around 19 % of global demand, and is anticipated to be increased three-fold in next century [1]. However, studies indicate that declining river flows, as a result of climate changes will lead to declining hydrophone production. Against a backdrop of rising global surface temperature, Indian monsoon remained unstable in the past century. Using daily rain fall data, Swami et. (2006) observed significant rise in the frequency and magnitude of extreme rain and decrease in the frequency of moderate rain in central India. Swahili (2007), using a multinational global model, simulates energy supply and demand, price trajectory and growth. It is shown that higher energy prices generated by rapid growth in China and India may constrain other countries growth. Hydrological data defined on an annual time scale are generally characterized stationary unless there are l arge-scale climate variability, natural disruptions and human-induced changes such as reservoir construction Salsas, 1993). At present, in the developing state of countrys economy, requirement of electrical power for both industrial and agricultural use has been increased over the year. The Report of the Group on Power for 10th plan estimated the need based capacity addition of 62,213 MAW during 1 lath plan. Thus, it is necessary to commission projects to generate power to bridge the ever-increasing gap in demand and supply scenario. Up to March, 2010, out of total estimated potential capacity of power generation in India (1, 50,000 MAW) only 15 per cent has been commissioned and 7 per .NET is on the way of its commissioning. On the one hand, it is necessary to expedite massive plan known as Mission-2012, Power for All, under which 50,000 MAW hydroelectric powers is to be added in the existing power generation capacity but on the other hand, with this 22% exploitation of power ill-effects have become visible. Canadian group of researchers has observed that hydro power is no more pollution free; it omits greenhouse gases along with other many socioeconomic, cultural, psychological, livelihood and climatic impacts in the areas where such types of developmental mills are planned. Traditional knowledge (TX) generally refer to the long-standing traditions and practices of certain regional, indigenous, or local communities which are being used by them to sustain their TRANS Asian Research Journals lives. TX is also encompasses the wisdom, knowledge, and teachings of these communities and in many cases, it has been orally transmitted from generation to generation and sometimes from person to person in one generation. Some forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through stories, legends, folklore, rituals, songs, and even laws. Other forms of traditional knowledge are expressed through different meaner. Himalaya Pradesh is a mountainous state having about thousand perennial streams which form a diverse drainage system in the state. It has five perennial rivers of Indus water system I. E. Chance, Yamaha, Rave, Status and Baas (The fig. L shows four major rivers of Indus water system I. E.

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

Comp Research Paper

Comp Research Paper Comp Research Paper Paige Wilsher Dr. Sally Emmons Comp 1113 19 November, 2013 The Fiery Future â€Å"When it comes to the future, there are three kinds of people: those who let it happen, those who make it happen, and those who wonder what happened.† − John M. Richardson, Jr. This quote is something one can see throughout Ray Bradbury’s Fahrenheit 451. There are multiple characters that fit these descriptions but three main characters that fit it perfectly. Beatty the fire house captain lets it happen, Montag makes it happen, and Mildred wonders what happened. It is really sad to think that some people just leave their future to chance rather than making a future that is better and leaving a path for future generations. Without a past one cannot hope for a future, the past allows one to learn and grow and make a future that is livable. If one does not learn from the past the same mistakes are likely to be made in the future, leading down a path of possible destruction. The twenty-first century is supposed to be the greatest century ever; however like the novel Fahrenheit 451 people are sacrificing knowledge and intellectual thought for an easier, simpler, thoughtless lifestyle. Alliteracy and Illiteracy is something that is passed down through generations, inevitably sacrificing the knowledge to be able to read for an entire family. Fifty-nine percent of people from a survey done by NDP group in 1991 stated that they read less than ten books the previous year (Weeks 522). America has prided itself on being a literate first world country, whereas, it has been building an environment where reading is not required. With the technology in the world today children and teens spend most of their time playing video games, watching TV, or using social networking sites rather than reading a book. Then the parents allow the children to watch movies or play the video game before bed instead of reading them a story. There was a time when writers were celebrated for their works, but now people chose to celebrate actors, singers, and athletes instead. Acting, singing, and athletics are also very important to society but they are no cause to push out writing and reading. Weeks explains a lecture given by Kylene Beers. This lecture explains the two types of reading, efferent which is purposeful reading, and aesthetic which is for the joy of it. In order to be a good reader Beers believes people have to be able to visualize the text they are reading (Weeks 525). One of the reasons there are books and movies is to allow the audience to escape to a world that is unlike this, travel back in time, and to be the hero of the story. The only difference between movies and books is that books allow the person to feel as if they are one of the characters in the story, and that is something movies are unable to portray. If one spends all of their time skimming through books during school and then never even looking at it outside of school, then they are less likely to read to their children or teach their children how to read, sacrificing that knowledge not only for themselves but for their children. When most people think of an illiterate person they do not believe their illiteracy can cause them to suffer both mentally and physically. One thing nobody can deny is that the number of illiterate citizens in the America is on the rise. Illiterates are often lost in this nation of fast paced economics and rapidly changing technology. Illiterates are unable to do some of what seems to be the most simplistic of tasks to a literate person. For example most illiterates are unable to read newspaper article, words on the TV, voting ballots, menus in a restaurant, or their child’s report card. Those kinds of things can upset the individual emotionally but they do not cause any real suffering. The biggest concern when it comes to illiterates is when they are unable to read prescription instructions or warning labels, this can cause some serious harm to them if they overdose or ingest

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Describe and explain the different stages of American policy toward Essay

Describe and explain the different stages of American policy toward China during the Cold War - Essay Example The first years of the Cold War are notoriously difficult to pinpoint since although the United States was against communism in the earlier years of the 20th century, it was allied with the Soviet Union during World War II in defeat of Germany and Japan. Therefore it is most common to claim the beginning of the Cold War as occurring in those years after World War II when the United States explored its options in terms of dealing with all communist countries (Wala 168). With specific reference to China, the United States spent the early 1950's deciding how to proceed with a Chinese nuclear disarmament plan. The following decade was dedicated to the war between North and South Vietnam, a conflict that gave further rise to unfriendly relations between the United States and China. While China supported the communist regime of North Vietnam, the United States supported South Vietnam in its efforts to establish a democracy. The Vietnam War was in essence a mirror of the non-violent conflict raging between the United States and China, and both countries saw the war as a way to manifest its own beliefs and prove one way or the other that theirs was the superior political strategy. In fighting for South Vietnam and providing troops with arms, the United States hoped to instill democracy in the nation and actually win over communism. The Chinese government felt exactly the same way about its involvement with North Korea and the installation of a communist government. The Vietnam War marked the pinnacle of the hostilities between the United States and China during the first stage of the Cold War period (Wiest 19-23). China and the Soviet Union were close allies immediately following the Second World War, and while the USSR took a central role in the spread of communist ideals on the international level, China's responsibility was to spearhead and Eastern revolution whereby all of Asia was hoped to be made communist (Ross 71-80). The influence of China was difficult to ignore both for the USSR and the United States simply because it was such a massive, populated country. When China became allied with the USSR, the United States government was confronted with the realization that it might be overwhelmed by the combined political and military influence of these communist states, and so when the opportunity came to ally itself with China, America took it. In the early 1970's US President Nixon took advantage of the wish of the Chinese government, headed by Mao Zedong, to establish more friendly relations with the United States. Despite the communist status of China, the major irritation to the democratic American government was the continued success of the communist Soviet Union and therefore Nixon and Zedong understood how an alliance could benefit them (Harding 391-395). Both America and China were experiencing issues with the Soviet government at this time, and although China and the USSR were both communist countries, the former had decided to change the focus of its political and economic appeal. This rapprochement is considered one of the contributing factors in the eventual collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War. In 1979 China and the US announced a full return to their diplomatic relations, and on this milestone US President

Friday, November 1, 2019

Research Paper about Marijuana legalization - Criminal Justice Studies

About Marijuana legalization - Criminal Justice Studies - Research Paper Example This research paper is therefore important for identifying whether or not alternative responses to the social, economic and health issues linked to marijuana may be more appropriate. This research paper therefore proposes to identify the social, economic and health issues linked to the abuse of marijuana and whether or not the cost of decriminalizing marijuana is proportionate to these issues. I chose this topic because I have personally observed friends who use marijuana regularly. Some of these friends function no differently than friends who do not use marijuana. Some of these friends however appear to be lackadaisical and unmotivated and do not function productively. I found the disparity in my friends’ functioning interesting and wondered if the different reactions to marijuana use influence the controversy over whether or not marijuana use should be controlled by legislation. This research is conducted by a review of the literature on the pros and cons of legalising mari juana and the literature on the social, economic and health consequences of marijuana use. ... Significance of the Study 10 VI.Research Methodology 10 VII.Organization of the Study 11 Chapter Two 13 A Review of the Literature 13 I.Introduction 13 A.Public Opinion 13 B.Legal Issues 16 C.Economic Issues 18 D.Social and Health Costs 22 II.Conclusion 25 Chapter Three 26 Research Methodology 26 Chapter Four 29 Results and Analysis 29 I.Results 29 A.Semi-Structured Interviews 29 B.Questionnaires 31 III.Conclusion 35 IV.Strengths of the Research 36 V.Weaknesses of the Research 36 VI.Areas for Future Research 36 Bibliography 41 Chapter One Introduction to the Study I. Introduction An increase in marijuana use during the 1990s has given way to an intensification of the debate on the legalization of marijuana (Strang, Wilton, & Hall, 2000). Proponents in favor of legalizing marijuana argue that marijuana is harmless when used as a recreational drug and has therapeutic/medicinal value. Opponents of legalizing marijuana argue however, that marijuana should remain a banned substance since its use is harmful to personal health and to public safety (Strang, et. al., 2000). In more recent times the debate over the legalization of marijuana gained increasing currency with the medical community’s involvement. Within the medical community there was sufficient recognition of the medicinal value of marijuana to persuade some states to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. Medicinal marijuana is said to be an effective therapy for pain, nausea and vomiting linked to chemotherapy, excessive weight loss in AIDS patients and can help patients tolerate the side effects of some conventional treatments. Convinced of its medical value, between 1996 and