Saturday, August 31, 2019

Bata Proposal

Proposal For The Student Internship Report Semester: Fall 2012 Title of the Report: Automation and Update of the Employee Profile in BATA Shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. Rationale for Selecting the Report: I am Doing my internship in BATA shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. and currently working in the department of Human Resource Management. As BATA is a production based company and the company has to deal with man power frequently and in a huge amount. And for managing this huge man power HRD plays a huge role. And one of the biggest company in our country and in the world they are practicing Human resource Management for a long time.As they are practicing it for a long time now, previously they were doing the operations of HR in manual way but by time they got into Automation. They were keeping the data into HRIS software for a long now but in the old HRIS software many fields were missing and now they have decided to develop new HRIS software and add some new fields to it which is very important for the organ ization. By this new software they will get fully updated HRIS software with new information about all the employees, so that they will e able to use it whenever they need.And now I am helping the HR department of BATA to update the employee profile by assisting them to fill up the employee information field and collect the up-to-date information about all the employees of the organization. And giving input into the software. I think this will help me understand the process how HRIS of BATA shoe Co. (BD) Ltd. Works and how it will help the organization as well as the department of HR. it is to see how they manage the personnel through this HRIS software. Background of BATA Shoe: Bata Ltd. is a privately owned global shoe manufacturer and retailer headquartered in Ontario, Canada.The company is led by a third generation of the Bata family. With An operation in 68 countries, Bata is organized into four business units. Bata Canada, based In Toronto, serves the Canadian market with 250 stores. Based in Paris, Bata Europe Serves the European market with 500 stores. With supervision located in Singapore, Bata International boasts 3,000 stores to serve markets in Africa, the Pacific, and Asia, Finally, Bata Latin America, operating out of Mexico City, sells footwear throughout Latin America. All told, Bata owns more than 4,700 retail stores and 46 production facilities.Total employment for the company exceeds 50,000. 1894: The Bata family establishes a company in Zlin, located in what is now the Czech Republic. 1932: Founder Tomas Bata dies in an airplane accident. 1939: The Company relocates to Canada after the movement of German military forces Into Eastern Europe. 1945: Czechoslovakia business operations are nationalized by the new communist Government following World War II. 1991: Bata returns to the Czech Republic following fall of the communist regime. 1994: Thomas J. Bata, the son of the company's founder, retires. 1962: Started in Bangladesh 2001: Thomas J. B ata, Jr. becomes chairman and CEO. Bata Bangladesh is affiliated to the Bata Shoe Organization, the world's largest footwear Manufacturing and marketing organization.Started operation in Bangladesh in 1962, Incorporation in Bangladesh in 1972. Currently, Bata Bangladesh operates 2 manufacturing plant Tongi and Dhamrai, Bata Bangladesh is producing around 110,000 pairs of shoes daily. It has a modern tannery With the latest technological facilities to process 5 million square feet of leather yearly. Objectives: General Objectives: The general objective of the internship report is to learn how the HRIS works in the BATA Shoe Co. BD) Ltd. and the organizational behavior how the corporate culture works in the organization. I can also compare the practical and theoretical knowledge of Human Resource Management and HRIS. Specific Objectives: †¢It will help me to complete my undergraduate program †¢I will be able to know the HR process of BATA †¢It will also be useful for me to understand about the HRIS in BATA. Submitted By: Name of the Student (Intern): Fahmi Rahmat Nawaz ID No# 09-14444-2 Major: Human Resource Management (HRM) Date: 07-11-2012 Action by the Supervisor: Approved: Disapproved: Approved With Revision:

A Critical Analysis – John Keats, “Ode on a Grecian Urn”

The Romantic Period introduced a variety of writing styles. The authors of the early eighteenth century altered many of the earlier romantic pieces. The early writers primary area of concern was nature. It was not until the ladder part of the eighteenth century that authors began to focus on the supernatural as well as nature. John Keats unique style of writing gave the world a great respect for his work. Keats felt his poetry should effect the readers emotions, and only great poetry could move the reader to the point of enjoyment. In doing this Keats felt the only way to achieve his goal of â€Å"moving his udience† was to surrender to uncertainties, or by believing much of life is unexplainable, especially human beings, who strive on emotion that guide their wants and needs. In the â€Å"Ode on a Grecian Urn†, the urn represents a story without regard to time. (Bloom 16). The unchanging marble arrests time through the urn. (Bloom 16). â€Å"When old age shall this generation waste, Thou shalt remain† (lines 46-47), describes the unchanging marbles and the characters on the urn. With the unchanging marble, the urn has slowed time towards eternity, making artwork immortal (bloom 16). This shows the immortal side of the Grecian urn physical appearance. The unchangeable urn also displays a tale of an everyday place. The urn show the people with their endless deeds. â€Å"Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare; Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss, Tough winning near the goal- ye, do not grieve; She cannot fade, though thou hadt not thy bliss, Forever wilt thou love, and she be fair! (lines 15-20). Life is halted and can never continue from this point. The fair youth, the Bold Lover, the trees of spring, and the season spring, can ever leave their endless deeds. Immortality of the town is shown. What little town by river or seashore, Or mountain-built with peaceful citadel, Is empitied of this folk, this pious morn? And, little town, thy streets forevermore Will be silent be†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (lines 35 – 39). The town will never see people inhibiting it, bringing loneliness and immorality throughout the town. These are the advantages mortality give to the living. The themes of immortality and morality can be seen throughout â€Å"Ode of a Grecian Urn. † The unchanging marble of the urn can be considered immortal just as the tale displayed on the urn. The fact that the tale on the urn can never change shows the disadvantage of being mmortal and the reason why morality can be better. The poem begins by probing the reader with a series of questions presented by the speaking subject. Keats then permits the urn to speak without speaking, to â€Å"express a flowery tale more sweetly than rhyme. Keats has trouble getting outside of the answers he continually struggle with during his writing career. He presents a series of questions he expects the urn, or the representative of the urn to answer. Scott says, â€Å"the ode does not begin with the speakers attempt to compete with the urn, but with a homage to its strange enealogy and its paradoxical powers of eloquence† (Scott 135). Scott also says, Keats immediately becomes impatient with the urn’s silence and seeks to impose his own dialogue on the existing surface of the urn. Andrew Bennett recognizes Keat’s desire to enter the dialogue saying, â€Å"Keats always seems about to burst into narrative† (Bennett 130). He appears from the beginning to question the urn, then later adds his answers. Keats now haunts the reader at the end of the poem by questioning the nature of truth represented by the urn. Stillenger accurately states in â€Å"The Hoodwinking of Madeline†, the question of he urn, â€Å"Who said what to whom at the end of ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn? † (Stillinger 167- 173). Truth is related to whom we identify as the speaking subject. Someone or something is addressing the reader directly. Someone is defined as â€Å"a friend of man†. Keats sees the â€Å"happy lover† as well as the â€Å"object of desire†, the three boughs and the piper. The urn contains a scene ambiguous in meaning. He presents questions within the first through forth stanzas. He demands origins, names and meaning in regards to specified events. The unanswered questions are left for the reader to answer. Jason Muro says, the ode inscribes a sine wave, with five distinct points along its length. First, the poet is steeped in despair brought about b the world’s unrelenting flex. Second, upon entering the urn, he is filled with hope he has found the antidote for despair. Third, he finds his hope unfounded, the antidote was a placebo. Fourth, he closely examined the urn, he embodies a terror more intense than the despair from which he sought relief. The Placebo is in fact poison. Last, he embraces transient conditions of the world as an antidote to the terrors of the urn. The point of origin of Keats initial problem from which he wants to ascene becomes his point of salvation he want to climb by the end of the poem. Keats became apart of his poetry by becoming all of its characters in one aspect or another. He is the â€Å"unheard melody that is never really heard or appreciated in its lifetime†. He is the tree that will never go bare, because he died during the spring season of the year. He is the bold lover that will never kiss yet will forever love. Line after line Keats is the representative of the objects and people he describes. The happy boughs, happy melodist, and the pining lover. I believe the poet and the urn to one in the same. The question is, What was the meaning of â€Å"beauty is truth, truth is beauty? Stiller believes it to mean, â€Å"face value, the statement is false, and Keats knew this and understood this, but maybe considered it a simple, sarcastic equation that would guarantee a frivolous, superficial existence in a society consumed with who’s who. † (200). Keats was making a mockery of the ideal, ‘forever happy’ lifestyle by realizing no one is truly happy no matter how thing appear to the outside world. The urn may have been representative of Keat’s dream of a short lifestyle. A group whose motto was â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty,† and were there beliefs to their end. What was the true sacrifice Keats endured within this work? Was so much of his time spent creating this fictional urn, only to inform society of his final analogy of his time on earth? Did Keats consider himself to be the â€Å"Sylvan historian? † Had he mastered the superficial rules to life and living on earth? Was he letting the reader in on his theory? of â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty? † These are questions that may remain unanswered by Keats, but remain a mystery to whomever has the opportunity to explore â€Å"Ode on a Grecian Urn. Taking a look into to today’s society, we find the same belief. Appearing to be physically perfect is the new trend. We worship Hollywood stars and try to model our own lives after them. The media makes the world of Hollywood perfect and we sometimes have a difficult time deciphering between our world and their world. There are many of us who aspire to be like the ‘stars’ yet there is a hidden message within the lives they lead. â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty. † This message is apparent whenever a ‘star’ is in the spotlight. Society believes in the reality behind the message â€Å"Beauty is truth, truth beauty. We want to believe this message is the key to all our happiness. We all at one time or another within our lives have tried to live according to our favorite celebrity, just as Keats idolized the people projected on his urn. Keats life unfortunately ended before it ever began yet he was able to realize despite his heartbreak and illness, that this is almost never true. No matter how perfect things appear to be on the outside, it’s totally different when you attempt to put the other person shoes on and takes a stroll. In other words, things are not what they always appear to be.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Educational administrators Essay

A stakeholder is an individual or an entity that stand to gain or lose from the success or failure of a system or an organization. From a business perspective the stakeholder analysis theory asserts that an organization should pay greater attention to its stakeholders’ suggestions and interests in order to incorporate them in the overall decision-making process. Just like it is in the business world, school organizations (institutions) involve several stakeholders such as students, teachers, the parents’, the government, community, etc. [Gross & Godwin, 2006] Each stakeholder has got a distinct role to play for instance; students are expected to be disciplined, participate in various school activities, and to perform excellently in their academics, the teachers on the other hand are expected to live to the expectations of the professional code of conduct, and to do all what pertains instructions giving, the parents on their part are expected to collaborate with changing demands of the school and to promptly pay fees. The government is expected to offer, technical, professional, and monetary assistance to the schools, while the community is expected pay taxes that are used in the running of the school activities. Just as the stakeholders roles differ, so does their expectations. Students expect an all-inclusive school environment that is rich in quality instructional giving methods and other social amenities such entertainment, sport facilities, etc; the teachers expect to be given reasonable remuneration packages and enough working space to professionally deliver to the students; the parents expect quality education for their children that will result into good results at the end of the school life; the government expects maximum adherence to the school curriculum and the production of happy and useful school products (students) who will fit well in various sectors of the economy; on the other hand the community expects the school to produce happy and useful products who will be called upon to play various tasks in the society. [ESD, 2005-11] Irrespective of whether the school performance is excellent or on a downward trend, all the stakeholders should work together, relate, share, and communicate more often in order to maintain the good performance or impr ove on the nose-diving performance. [Gallagher, Bagin, & Moore, 2005: p. 12] For the smooth running of the school, a proper communication system must be maintained. An administrator will not accomplish any goals in the school without adequate communication. A good communication system should always allow for the receiver to respond to the communicated message. It has been noted that school administrators fail not because they want to but due to their failure to plan. However, a good communication system will not exist without a proper plan. [Holliday (1988)] For, Harris, (2004) â€Å"Good communication does not happen by accident, it is planned, †¦ However, principals with a specific communication plan are able to provide needed support that leads to effective relationship building. † (p. 19). In a school setting communication is paramount in keeping the stakeholders fully informed about well-meaning changes that affect the realization of the school core objectives and also to keep a constant track of any changes in stakeholder expectations. One such well-meaning change in a school is curriculum development. The importance of curriculum changes is seen in the sense that a curriculum is the prime plan of the course of study that provides the learner with proper learning experiences under the guidance of a school. If a curriculum is not meeting the set goals of education then its change is always imperative. Again, it can be changed in order to meet the global innovations and changes of stakeholders’ expectations. [Walkin (1982)] However, to change a curriculum all the stakeholders must be contacted and their views collected. The current curriculum being used by the high schools in our state was lastly developed ten years ago. Many people have been complaining about it, and calls for its change have been received from several stakeholders in the state. As the chief principal in my school, the task of contacting all the stakeholders in order to get their views concerning the current curriculum efficacy lies wholly in my docket. I will prepare a comprehensive report concerning curriculum matters and a questionnaire; the two documents will be sent to students, teachers, parents, the state education department officials, and some members of the School Board of Governance. The response to these messages and others from other schools will be used to push the state education department to come up with a committee that will embark on the process of reviewing the current curriculum and facilitate changes were necessary. [Gallagher, Bagin, & Moore, 2005] In order to convince the stakeholders that a change of the current curriculum is necessary I will prepare a detailed report that will describe the national goals of education, the objectives of the current curriculum relative to the national education goals, my school performance in state tests for the last five years, and the performance or the last five years of other five schools in different school districts in the state. The report will also include several articles published in some of the leading newspapers and education journals in the state calling outlining the importance of changing the current curriculum. The purpose of this compressive report will be to impart the stakeholders with the necessary knowledge that will enable them to make a decision as to whether a change is necessary or not. In accompaniment of the report will be a five-question questionnaire that will be prompting the stakeholders to sincerely state their opinions on the issue. To compile the report I will need the assistance of several people. The students from various classes, class teachers, the subject heads, head of departments, principals of other schools in different school districts in the state, local education department officers, and several curriculum experts in the state. Two sources of data will be utilized in the study i. e. the primary and the secondary data sources; the primary source will include the data that will be collected direct from the people through observations or verbal interviews while the secondary ones will comprise of stored records, newspapers, and journal articles. In order to collect reliable and valid data I will employ two qualitative methods of data collection. These methods will be verbal and over the phone interviews and scrutinizing of test results presented to me by the respective class teachers, and other written materials. [Taylor & Bogdan, 1984] These two methods will enable me to get a clear picture of subject teachers’ comments, how the students have been performing relative to the national goals of education, curriculum objectives, and the syllabus requirements, and experts’ views on the impact of the current curriculum in meeting the socio-economic, cultural, and political needs of the students and the society at large. The construction of the five-question questionnaire will be guided by the above reports conclusions. Teachers will collect their reports and the questionnaire from the staffroom while the students will be given theirs via their respective class teachers, for those other stakeholders the post office mailing service will be the obvious option. Stakeholders will be required to take three to six days to study the report fill the questionnaire and mail back the questionnaire. [Gallagher, Bagin, & Moore, 2005] The returned questionnaires will then be analyzed the overall stakeholders verdict recorded. If a clear majority shows that they are for a change – which is the most probable verdict, then another report that describes the new stakeholders’ expectations in my school will be prepared but this time not targeting all the stakeholders but the state education department office whose one of its core mandate is to constantly review the existing curriculum. The report will also be copied to the school heads of all the schools in the state through their respective school district offices, and they will also be carrying out their own change communications, their reports will also be forward to the state education department. [Gallagher, Bagin, & Moore, 2005] In order to provide a feedback to all my schools stakeholders who participated in the change-communication process, I will publish the analyzed results in the local daily newspapers, local educational journals, and even non-print media. Students will also be issued with the same reports to read and to take to their parents, and thus as much people as will be practically possible will definitely be reached through these communication methods. These will help to build a sense of trust on the school among the school stakeholders, as their true feelings will be reflected in the communicated report. Again, this will serve as a positive precedent for future communications of positive changes. [Harris, (2004)] This report will also be made the main agenda in the normal biannual stakeholder meetings, and therefore there will be still a chance to convince the skeptics on the importance of the changes and also develop a time frame, and the other important deliberations that pertains the changes. In these biannual meetings other important changes pertaining the smooth running of the school will also be discussed such as entering into agreements with local colleges and universities in order to facilitate a smooth transition from high school to college education for our school graduates. [Gallagher, Bagin, & Moore, 2005] References: Bogdan, R. C. and Taylor, S. J. (1975). Introduction to qualitative research methods: A phenomenological approach to the social sciences, Boston: Allyn & Bacon, available at; http://www. universitybusiness. com,accessed on March 10, 2009 Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), 2005-2011. UNESCO, available at; http://portal. unesco. org/education/en/ev. phpURL_ID=23304&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201. html, accessed on March 10, 2009 Gallagher, D. R. , Bagin, D. , & Moore, E. H. (2005). The school and community relations, (pp. 16-39). Boston: Pearson Allyn and Bacon, accessed on March 10, 2009 Gross, K. & Godwin, P. (2006). Education’s Many Stakeholders: Educational administrators are increasingly recognizing what business have long understood: customer satisfaction matters, accessed on March 10, 2009 Harris, S. (Ed) (2004). Bravo principal: building relationships with actions that value others. Larchmont, N. Y. : Eye on Education, accessed on March 10, 2009 Holliday, A. E. (1988). In search of and answer: What is school public relations? Journal of educational Public Relations. 11 (2), p. 12, accessed on March 10, 2009 Walkin, L. (1982). Instructional Techniques and Practice. Chetrenham: Stanley Thomes Ltd, accessed on March 10, 2009

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Vindication of the rights of women with structures on political and Essay

Vindication of the rights of women with structures on political and moral subjects - Essay Example One of the most important things to remember about this work is the fact that it was written following the French Revolution. The French Revolution was a much feared event in England, where Mary Wollstonecraft hailed from. The possibility of revolution was something that the English aristocracy feared to a great extent. This fear influenced many of their worldviews and beliefs. However, it was important to many members of the intelligentsia as a result of the liberal philosophy that it espoused. This work comes in the backdrop of the continuing French Revolution that was based on the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity. It is also based on these ideals as it talks through several perspectives for the development of equality for women in regard to their male counterparts in the society. It also seeks to counteract those notions that enable such a denigration of the roles that women play in the society. This is then something that needs to be analyzed in a more minute manner. Th is paper shall look at the different issues that Wollstonecraft brings into her discussion of gender and her critique of patriarchal social relations as they existed in England during the time of her writing this work. The work also needs to be seen in terms of the legacy of the Augustan age when reason was considered to be the most important faculties of mankind. Wollstonecraft draws on reason as the basis of the society that she envisages for mankind and also looks at reason as the way out for the patriarchal conundrum that women were faced with. This is the basis of the rights that she envisages for women. This is significant as it is a break away from the tradition-oriented debates that were common in England at the time of the French Revolution. English conservative politicians had begun to extol the virtues of traditions at a time when they were being threatened by the revolutionary fervor that was present in France. This was detrimental to the condition of women as their righ ts were being curtailed in England as a result of this insistence on tradition as well. This is one of the reasons as to why it was important for a work of this kind to come out at this point of time in history, especially in England. This insistence on tradition is then countered using the notion of reason as it was prevalent in England. Despite having said this, the spirit of the work derived from the ideas of freedom that emanated from the French Revolution. It is in this relation that one needs to look at the arguments that are advanced in favor of education by the author. She talks of education as the means through which women can be empowered. She advances the notion that this would enable them to think independently and understand the value of reason and understanding. This would also, according to her, help women to nurture their children better. She says, Contending for the rights of woman, my main argument is built on this simple principle, that if she be not prepared by e ducation to become the companion of man, she will stop the progress of knowledge and virtue; for truth must be common to all, or it will be inefficacious with respect to its influence on general practice. And how can woman be expected to cooperate unless she

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

According to the article and answer the question Assignment - 1

According to the article and answer the question - Assignment Example Furthermore, the assertion that Sifaka have different colors is true. This is because on closer examination of these animals, it is possible to denote that they portray patches of black, gray, white and a gold colored fur. Furthermore, the author accurately describes the physical appearance of the Sifaka. In the description, the Sifaka have a slightly bugged out eyes, long limbs, and special characteristics that enables them to groom themselves (Kappeler, 21). This includes possessing a toilet claw, found in their second toe. It is important to denote that these are the characteristics of the family of Indriidae, and specifically, the genus of Lemur. It is further important to denote that Lemur is vegetarian in nature, and this makes the Sifaka to be vegetarians. On this basis, the writer is correct through the article which asserts that the diet of the Sifaka involves flowers, fruits, leaves, and the bark of a tree. Kappeler (31) also supports the fact that Sifaka likes sunbathing. This is a luxury to them, and it normally occurs when they are not looking for food. On this note, the information given by the author concerning this behavior is correct. Furthermore, the description of the author regarding the gestation period of the female Sifaka is correct. All Lemurs normally have a gestation period of between four to five months. The only shortcoming in this article is the inability of the writer to give information concerning the growth and development of the young

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Literature review Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Literature review - Research Paper Example 119). In light with this, Cauffman suggested that effective prevention efforts should be put in place in a bid to meet the mental health needs for at-risk female offenders. Cauffman advocated for community-based treatment programs that would improve individual outcomes. However, although such a program would be effective towards this effect, a more comprehensive approach needs to be deliberated upon. In fact, it is true to argue that a community based program can be a good accompaniment of prerelease programs. Prerelease programs help incarcerated persons realize that it is their mistakes that have lead to their incarceration. Therefore, through these programs, they get advice on how to abstain from crime. When they get out of prison, community based programs enhances good behavior and highlights on various ways through which they can coexist with other members of the community without committing crimes. In their article, Barbara, et al (2010) noted that studies have documented that incarcerated persons have high rates of psychological disorders. In fact, they contended that nearly 70% of female offenders are affected by depression. In this regard, it is apparent that there therefore an obvious necessity to have a variety of treatment programs. However, according to Barbara, et al (2010), available treatment options do not seem to favor female offenders with physical and psychological problems. This can be argued to be correct because, for example, while cognitive behavioral therapy is used with male offenders, it is incomplete on the side of female offenders who have multidimensional issues ranging from emotional to relational factors. Rationale for effective behavioral modification programs for female offenders Studies have documented that women tend to generally show positive responses to most intervention methods that have been specifically designed to decrease some negative feelings such as guilt with the intention of increasing their levels of self esteem . One of such methods is group counseling. This can be used to address issues such as gender-specific addiction, family relations, and self esteem among many others. Group counseling seems to be effective for female offenders because females are intrinsically motivated to connect with others. Many female offenders have a sense of disconnection, marginalization, isolation, something that lead to hopelessness (Gaines & Miller, 2011). In this regard, group counseling in the prison setting would help female offenders to share different experiences that can help in motivating them. Valerie, et al (2009) in their article noted that many cases of delinquency have histories of exposure to violence, abuse, and neglect. Valerie, et al (2009) also acknowledged that over 60% of girls in the juvenile justice system have at one time been victims of several forms of abuse. In addition, they also noted that a study carried out in the California juvenile justice system found that 92% of female offen ders had unfortunately been victim to some form of not only emotional abuse, but also in some cases, they were also victims of physical and/ or sexual abuse. Therefore, with such deliberations, group counseling would offer emotional support in the effort to manage stress. Delinquency behavior acquired as a result of exposure to such issues would be challenged in group sessions whereby each member of the group expresses their

Monday, August 26, 2019

Judaism and Hinduism Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Judaism and Hinduism - Research Paper Example This paper helps to discuss the various details, rituals, characteristics etc of both Judaism and Hinduism and aims to locate the similarities and differences between the two as well. Judaism is said to be the modern religious philosophy and the way of life that the Jewish people follow. This form of religion has been said to arise from the Hebrew Bible and helps to depict the relationship that God had developed with the children of Israel, the original Jews. It has been established for over 3000 years now and the texts or scriptures of the religion have been greatly influenced by Abrahamic religions that include Christianity, Islam as well as the Baha’i faith. The Torah is the authoritative scripture that is made use of while referring to, understanding and learning about the religion of Judaism. Hinduism on the other hand is the main religion that is followed in the Indian subcontinent and its followers follow the Sanatana Dharma which basically constitutes the eternal law. It has been known to be one of the oldest living religions known to mankind, formulated during the Vedic period during the Iron Age in India. Most Hindus engage in several rituals throughout the course of the year, both at home as well as at the temples. The most devout Hindus perform actions like waking up early to pray to the Sun god as well as worshipping the shrine that they have in their homes. They usually offer incense and food to the Gods as well while reciting hymns from religious scriptures and texts as well as sing and meditate with the help of devotional hymns, dedicated to God. Whenever there is an auspicious occasion in a Hindu household, like a marriage, birth of a baby, as well as death, rituals are followed in order to ensure that God is viewed as sacred despite the kind of adversities and joys that a human being might undergo during the course of his lifetime. Hindus chant a variety of mantras as well as undertake religious customs and rituals with great pride and devotion. For example, when upper caste children reach the age to begin with formal education, they have to undergo the sacred thread ceremony which is also known as the â€Å"Upanayanam†. Another ritual that is followed and is customary in all Hindu households is covering the body of a dead person with a white cloth, worshipping it as well as performing a ‘puja’ or a sacrifice to God and then burning the body on a funeral pyre and cremating it. Judaism is a faith that does not have as many rituals as Hinduism. However, Jews do follow a number of rituals like performing a bar mitzvah, havdalah etc. A bar mitzvah marks the coming of age of a Jewish child. When he or she reaches puberty, the family and friends conduct a bar mitzvah where the child then undertakes his journey into the rest of his life and is referred to as an adult in the religion. He receives money and gifts from his family and friends in order to embark upon the second chapter of his life. A havda lah on the other hand is a ceremony that is performed by most Jews around the world in a compulsory manner. According to this ritual, a brief ceremony takes place which marks the end of the Sabbath. It is a very short and simple procedure and mostly entails and provides emphasis on the spiritual aspect of a human being rather than a physical entity of God. Hinduism and Judaism share a number of similarities between each other however, also have a

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Case Analysis Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Case Analysis - Research Paper Example It transports more passengers, and it is also offers more regular schedule for domestic flights compared to its competitors. It offers low fares than any other airline because of its low-operating expenses. Chris Lauer accounts â€Å"Southwest Airlines is the largest low-fare carrier in the world† (1). Southwest’s also has a good customer service, a dedicated staff and personnel, and an exceptional management team that keeps on making an excellent pricing and marketing plan for the company. One of Southwest’s successful strategies is serving less congested airports that helped minimize total travel time for passengers, and this allowed the company to avoid paying the higher landing fees and terminal gate costs. Southwest is routinely improving its information system for faster flow of information in order to enhance the airlines function, cut costs, and improve its customer service On account of Southwest’s aim to carry out its low-fare strategy continually, the company operated only one type of aircraft. Along with this, Southwest flight attendants were responsible for cleaning up trash left by passengers and getting the plane presentable for the next flight while rival carriers had cleaning crews. The airline also did not have a first-class section on any of its planes. Also, passengers with checked baggage who were connecting to other carriers in order to reach their destinations were not offered baggage transfer services. Southwest also has a tarnished reputation regarding the management’s failure to conduct the required inspections for fuselage fatigue cracking. Southwest’s has growth opportunities by having a first-class section on its planes and by serving more domestic flights and possibly international flights. The airline should also offer a baggage transfer services to passengers who have connecting flights with other carriers in order to improve its customer service.

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Trace the pathway of bloodflow through the heart Essay

Trace the pathway of bloodflow through the heart - Essay Example gets the deoxygenated blood from the upper parts of the body such as the head and arms, and the other the Inferior vena cava that receives deoxygenated blood from the lower parts of the body such as the torso and the legs. The blood entering the right ventricle of heart through the tricuspid valve from these two major veins are filled with carbon – dioxide. From the right ventricle, the deoxygenated blood is carried through the pulmonic valve to the pulmonary artery into the lungs. Here the blood is cleansed by the removal of carbon – dioxide and the addition of oxygen and once again returns through the pulmonary veins and empties itself into the left atrium. The left atrium is the chamber that receives the oxygenated blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. Between the left atrium and the left ventricle is a valve called the bicuspid valve – also called the mitral valve, which regulates the blood flow into the left ventricle. Both the bicuspid valve and the tricuspid valve also called the atrio-ventricular (AV) valves simultaneously open and close producing a Lub – Dub sound, which is the heartbeat of a person. The Lub sound is the opening of the valves and the Dub sound is the closing of the valves. The fourth chamber is the largest and most important of all the four chambers, the left ventricle is the strongest pump which helps to discharge blood into the aorta through a valve called the aortic valve. Both the pulmonary and the aortic valve operate or work simultaneously with each other. The aorta then takes the oxygen – rich blood and passes it to all the different parts of the body. In the same way, the bicuspid and tricuspid valves also open up simultaneously allowing blood to flow into the ventricles. When this happens, they contract and eject blood into the lungs and the body. In the meantime, the atria relax and once again fill with

Friday, August 23, 2019

Evalute the implementation of the UK last government's PE, School Essay

Evalute the implementation of the UK last government's PE, School Sport and Club Links (PESSCL) strategy and its impact in schools - Essay Example ports and Culture called upon the citizens and the local authorities to be united so as to realize and maximize the benefits of the programmes to young people. The plan was focused mainly the school. This is because in school the different categories of children meet from different communities. Therefore when the programme is in school, the children after their studies will expand the skills to the communities. It was very to united pupils and students in schools than in communities. This is because it had a focus in developing and nurturing the talents of the individuals both in school and community (Barbieri 2011, pg.133). To establish a National Infrastructure for PE and School sports by creating about 400 Specialist Sports Colleges, subject to sufficient high quality applications, by 2005 and 400 School Sport Coordinator partnerships by 2006 It was believed that this would enhance the pupil’s concentration, commitment in their studies and high level of self – esteem thereby improving overall performance in class. To ensure this, the government created a wide network scope of about 450 School Sport Partnerships across the entire country. The Partnership Development Manager (PDM), School Sport Co-ordinator (SSCo) in every Secondary school and the Primary Link Teacher (PLT) acted as the main stakeholders of the plan and were mandated with the responsibility of ensuring the strategy succeeded in schools. According to the results of the PE & Sport Survey by TNS-BMRM, 2010, it showed that most of the aims were achieved to higher percentage. It was realized that by the academic year 2009/2010, about 84% of the pupils were spending about 120 minutes per week in PE. This was an increase from the results obtained in the 2003/2004 academic year. It is important to highlight that this trend has been maintained from the academic year of 2003/2004 to the academic year 2009/2010 among all the children in most of the schools in the UK. I therefore state that the

Public Administration and Apply Behaviorist Theory to a Work Issue Essay

Public Administration and Apply Behaviorist Theory to a Work Issue - Essay Example Each of these concepts describes the change in a person’s behavior and the reason for such changes. The conditioned response relates to an activity that results due to a different incident. The next concept of behaviorist theory is aversive behavior. (Plaud, 1998). A person might exhibit a certain kind of behavior in response to a particular situation. This might be due to the disinterest towards the situation. Reinforcement aims at controlling the negative consequences of a behavior which helps in improving a person’s behavior. Consequences are one among the most important concepts of the behaviorist theory. A consequence generally arises from a particular decision or an action. Consequences generally turn out to be positive or negative depending on the behavior of the person. (Dewey, 1999). The situation too plays a major role in deciding the consequence of an action. These key concepts are generally applied to almost all the problems in varied areas. But these concep ts would perfectly suit an organization that deals with more number of problems and issues related to every single department of its. When comparing the other problems, the issue relating to the company’s production. The most common issue is the decline in the quality of the product a company manufactures.

Thursday, August 22, 2019

For all the Tea in China by Sarah Rose Essay Example for Free

For all the Tea in China by Sarah Rose Essay â€Å"For all the Tea in China -How England Stole the Worlds Favorite Drink and Changed History † as the subtitle foreshadows the story already. Before I had even read the book I assumed it would be a journey of betrayal, action and only closed off to the events that occur res as Robert Fortune underhandedly takes chinas precious tea right from underneath theyre own noses. But little did I know that it Sarah Rose has incorporated all the events essential to the to cultivation of tea in the mid Nineteenth-century. In Audition to this Historical non-fiction story that may be boring to others, or as one of my fellow classmates would put it â€Å"Ive been spacing out throughout the book† I Believe that Sarah Rose Has painted a Vivid image of the nineteenth century, with out a single page, paragraph, or sentence wasted with unnecessary knowledge to the readers view from how the Royal Horticultural Society of England and the East India Company affected Englands economy, traditions were also created based off of tea shipment such as the Annual Tea race. And how World Changed Englands East India Company to officially close down. Robert Fortune, a Scottish gardener, botanist, and worlds best plant hunter, famously known for his The British tea Heist which Sarah Rose writes passionately and was inspired by Scott Anderson in this book, and in audition famous for bringing back and documenting new oriental plants from China to England. Such as lovely tree peonies, and the uniquely streaked ornamental plant Hosta Fortunei. which was named after Robert fortune himself along with some other oriental plants found under his own travels not during the multiple expeditions he was sent to do by the East India Company. Fortune while undergoing the process in sending India seeds that are healthy and germinated.. but how?Fortune had realized that transporting the seeds in side packages while shipped doesnt stop the life cycle so the seeds that were in anything but soil were unsuccessful because the environment was unsuitable for the next step of its life which was the sapling. Buy having the tea seeds in the layers of soil and in the warden cases protected from sea spray forced the seeds to germinate with little watering because, of the warden cases the water that evaporated would just collect and drop back to the tea plant because of the morning due. Which has never been done before and changed the way of transporting seeds across seas for decades to come, and also solved the problem of transporting larger plants such as towering red woods and,England were now able to transport a whole species in there easy to tend to seed forms. The reason why Fortune had to take on this task of stealing Chinas tea secret was because. In the early nineteenth century China and Britain had a shaky relationship of trading Englands opium that China was so addicted to for theyre finest tea which grew high among the finger like mountain karsts of Wuyi in the Fujian provenances. But it was China who Threaten to grow and sell there own opium, and Britain couldnt let that happen because England relied on that finance to fund there tea budget And so if China wanted to play that way so will the British, therefore they sent Fortune. Poorer Qualities of tea already existed trying to compete with chinas finest tea in the Experimental grounds a part of the Himalayas in India run by the British. But could not duplicate the process of making tea itself or how its grown with out the precious knowledge china was keeping from them world. When Fortune succeeded it had Put Britain at the center of trade because there companies would produce safer qualities of tea because the Chinese where slowly killing people with dyes and pigments used in paints to color green tea, which sealed Britains choice with the already popular black tea. And also the hold of opium production as well as tea production, and civilization helped. Fortunes First 12 month period trip was spent travelin g to the Zhejiang and Anhui provenances for Green Tea. He had to disguise himself as a well paid merchant which wasnt enough to get noticed but held enough respect he usually was given. He needed to do deceive the local Chinese and Tea producers in order to get the information but there was no detail in how he did it, which I thought it would be a lot more exhilarating to know the master plan of how he was able to deceive so easily and to be trusted with that much valuable information, and most importantly needed the information of how to process and grow tea or it would be useless to get the thousands of seeds and saplings necessary to start a growing tea profitably with out having a clue of doing so and let them die. Also During Fortunes Expedition it would be impossible to travel the multiple provenances of China with out a Guide or Help to carry his Warden cases by him self hence he had to hire servants a collie whom preferred to be called that and Wang a business negotiator which served well but was easily influenced into trouble to a common trait that most Chinese did at the time it was called the â€Å"Squeeze† which was extracting money illegally from someone trying to earn a few bucks. And handful of trouble came from Fortunes servants betrayal because Fortune would treat them as any regular employee as they made mistakes or bad decisions that would jeopardize his goal he would punish them fairly but backfired. Another tradition the Chinese have Is called Face which is the equivalent of dignity or prestige, but the actual way it works is still really foggy due to lack of detail about this subject. So when Fortunes two servant were hired to serve him and he relied on them a lot which gave them a large amount of face, but because of a situation when his collie pulled a â€Å"Squeeze.† It Jeopardized his masters safety but it was fortune who settled the feud by having him return the money and apologize which humiliated Collie that caused him to lose face. During Fortunes second expedition to retrieve black tea from the Steep mountain of Wuyi, since both teas were so different and should be treated as two different plants there for Fortune was ordered to take two separate trips. Fortune had hired another servant named Sing Hoo he wasnt was a collie but he was strong and he was intelligent but not a businessmen man, the new loyal servant of Fortunes â€Å"had once been in the service of a high-ranking mandarin affiliated with the imperial family at Peking.† and also bore arms of his former office of the imperial court signified as a flag and serves as a passport throughout the country, it was a gift from the a former master. And during this second trip Fortune disguised himself as a high ranking mandarin from beyond the Great Wall of China which I thought would be hasty compared to lying low on the first trip. Also I thought it was amusingly clever that he chose the people from beyond the Great wall because, they were known for being abnormally taller height than the rest of the population in china which gave an explanation for Fortunes height while infiltrating China. If not for Fortunes treacherous task and constant awareness no matter what might of happened to make Fortune hate the country, he could probably hate every single thing in china but I doubt he would never be able to hate Chinas beauty from there great dense bamboo Forests off theyre proud mountains to the peaceful city of serenity named Zhejiang. Fortune was also a naturalist who was touched, and changed, by China and its treasures largely unseen by western eyes, in which found even more beautiful than the landscape of his own country. Green Tea was a failure because they had withered even before it had reached India of the improper shipping technique. Even though it had failed Black tea was a success which Changed history Forever in Britains favor Trade wise. I had also thought even though its not a picture book I would recommend a diagram of important people of the East India Company and The Royal Horticultural Society of England. And definitely a Map of Fortunes Travels Both trips to India and Maybe that trip to Japan.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Conflict Analysis Case Study: Nestlé

Conflict Analysis Case Study: Nestlà © Business is a never ending race and in the fast running world of business, there is variety of products and shops, showrooms, setups and etc. The main purpose of this report concerns the research managing conflicts in organization. The organization that is chosen for our research report is Nestlà ©. Data and observation analysis, recommendations for managing conflicts is also discussed. The methods used for collecting data for this report are surveys, questionnaires, personal observations, personal interviews, newspapers, internet etc. In the first section, we had given an introduction about the chosen organization Nestlà © and then a brief description about nature of conflict in the organization and its various types and causes of conflict. The second section is consists of literature review, in which we had discussed the theories and research papers of different researchers where they explain about conflicts and its causes in an organization and moreover how an organization can prevent those conflicts with best possible solution. The third section comprises of research methodology, research nature, data collection techniques and sampling method. In section forth we have scrutinized the primary data by different graphical and statistical tools. In final section we have given possible conclusions along with recommendations. CHAPTER # 1 1.1: INTRODUCTION TO NESTLÉ Nestlà © was founded in 1866 by Henri Nestlà © with headquarters in Vevey, Switzerland. It has employed around 250,000 people and has factories or operations in almost every country in the world. It is one of the worlds biggest food and Beverage Companies. The Companys priority is to bring the best and most relevant products to people, wherever they are, whatever their needs, throughout their lives. 1.2: PURPOSE OF RESEARCH The purpose of the research is to find the variable which has leads towards conflicts in Nestlà © Organization. The main purpose of the research is, firstly, to identify the causes of conflicts in Nestlà © and, secondly, to manage conflicts in Nestlà © organization. 1.3: BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY All of us experience some type of conflicts in our daily lives. Tensions, antagonisms, and frustrations always occur when people work together. There are disagreements, perhaps even fights, between employees and the supervisor or between co-workers. Aside from personality clashes, people simply have different viewpoints about the way things should be done. The main purpose of conducting the research is to find out the conflicts, and finding the ways to manage and solve them in an organisation. In this context we have got the opportunity to conduct our research on one of the top organizations (Nestlà ©). 1.4: DEFINITION OF CONFLICT Conflict is defined as the state of discord caused by perceived or actual opposition of needs, interests and values. A conflict can be internal or external. The concept of conflict can help to explain many social aspects of life such as social disagreement, fights between individuals, groups, or organizations and conflict of interests. Conflict as taught for graduate and professional work in conflict resolution which is defined as when two or more parties, with perceived incompatible goals, seek to undermine each others goal seeking capability. However, conflict can also occur in cooperative situations, in which two or more individuals or parties have consistent goals, because the manner in which individuals or party tries to reach their goal can still undermine the other individuals or party. 1.5: NATURE OF CONFLICT Conflict may constructively be viewed as resulting from differing belief systems, varied perspectives on the situation and values resulting from participants accumulated life experience and conditioning, differing interests and objectives. Effectively dealing with conflict requires the expression and management of participants varying interests, belief systems, perspectives and values. Through the integration of participants perspectives, belief systems, interests and values, conflict and conflict resolution play important roles in individual and social evolution and development. Conflict arises when one or more participants view the current system as not working. At least one party is adequately unhappy with the position, that they are willing to own the conflict and speak with the hope of being able to influence the situation to arrive at an improved condition. Conflict may be sight as a process we put ourselves through to attain a new condition and self definition. Through conflict we have opportunities to be artistically self-defining. If nothing else, conflict allows us in future to do things differently. Through the resolution of conflict, we can evolve and redefine ourselves, our community, our relationships our society and our world. 1.6: LEVELS OF CONFLICT 1.6.1: Inter divisional conflict Inter divisional conflicts exists between the perceiver and another individual within the organization. Although the other person does not need to be aware of the conflict, the perceiver of the conflict situation recognizes the present or future impact conflict can have on job performance. 1.6.2: Intra group conflict Intra group conflicts occur between perceiver and his or her immediate group within the organization. The immediate group can consist of work team, department or union. Whether fully or only superficially aware of the conflict issue, the perceiver realizes that the conflict can directly or indirectly affect job performance. 1.6.3: Inter group conflict It arises between the perceivers immediate group and another group within the organization. Again, the perceivers involvement may not be critical, but he or she must be aware of the situation and the potential impact the conflict can have on work performance. 1.6.4: Organizational conflict Organizational conflict is a state of disagreement caused by the actual or perceived opposition of needs, values and interests between people working together. 1.7: TYPES OF CONFLICT A conceptual conflict can rise into a verbal exchange or result in fighting.Conflict can exist at a variety of types. These are Community conflict Diplomatic conflict Emotional conflict Environmental resources conflict Group conflict Ideological conflict Interpersonal conflict Inter-societal conflict Intrapersonal conflict Organizational conflict Religious-based conflict and Workplace conflict. 1.8: CAUSES OF CONFLICTS 1.8.1: Authority relationship Authority Relationship conflicts occur because of the existence of strong pessimistic emotions, misperceptions or stereotypes, poor communication or miscommunication, or repetitive negative behaviors. Authority relationship problems often increase disputes and lead to an unnecessary rising spiral of destructive conflict. Supporting the secure and balanced expression of perspectives and emotions for acknowledgment (not agreement) is one effective approach to managing relational conflict. 1.8.2: Management style For any organization to be effectual and efficient in achieving its goals, the people in the organization need to have a common vision of what they are determined to achieve, as well as clear objectives for each individual, group/ team and department. Management style also needs ways of recognizing and resolving conflict between people, so that conflict does not become so serious that collaboration becomes impossible. The management of any organization needs to have ways of keeping conflict to a minimum and of solving problems caused by conflict, before conflict becomes a major obstruction to work. Management style helps to avoid conflict where probable and organizing to resolve conflict where it does happen, as rapidly and smoothly as possible. 1.8.3: Communication barriers: Conflict will be greater when barriers to communication exist. If parties are separated from each other physically or by time e.g.; the day shift versus the night shift-the opportunity for conflict is increased. To illustrate suppose a company employs only one plant supervisor, who works the day shift and leaves orders at the beginning of each week for the workers on the night shift. By the end of the week, how ever, these orders have been only partially carried out. The supervisor cannot figure out why. Obviously, the supervisor absence from the night shift has posed a communication barrier, which in turn causes decreased output. As Bryans, P, Cronin argued in 1984 that Space or time separations could promote isolated group interests rather than advance a common effort towards joint goals. 1.8.4: Personal factor Behavioral The way emotional experience gets expressed which can be verbal or non-verbal and intentional or un-intentional. Physiological Its defined as the bodily experience of emotion. The way emotions make us feel in comparison to our identity. Cultural values Culture tells people who are a part of it, Which emotions ought to be expressed in particular situations and what emotions are to be felt. Physical This escalation results from anger or frustration. Verbal This escalation results from negative perceptions of the annoyers character. 1.9: WAYS OF ADRESSING CONFLICTS There are basically five ways of addressing conflicts which were identified by Thomas and Kilman in 1976. These are 1.9.1: Accommodation Ones party surrenders its own needs and wishes to accommodate the other party. 1.9.2: Avoidance Avoid conflict by ignoring it, changing the subject, etc. As an expedient means of dealing with very minor, non-recurring conflicts or Avoidance can be useful as a temporary measure to buy time. In many cases, conflict avoidance involves severing a relationship. 1.9.3: Collaboration Working together can find a mutually beneficial solution. Collaboration can also be inappropriate and time-intensive. When there is not enough respect, trust or communication among participants for collaboration to occur. 1.9.4: Compromise Finding a centre point where each party is partially satisfied. 1.9.5: Competition Take the ones point of view at the potential expense of another. It can be more useful when achieving the ones objectives outweighs ones concern for the relationship CHAPTER # 2 2.1: LITERATURE REVIEW Different researchers have published their reviews on conflicts in the organization. We are viewing two best reviews of the researchers articles. Mr. Philips in 1982 threw light on some of key conditions, which may lead to serious organizational conflicts; he gave his views in the book named as Community in Organization. According to M Phillips certain social relationships characterized various kinds of conflict behavior. Each one could occur in your work area. The more aware the managers are of these conflict settings, the better are the chances of correcting them and running a smooth operation. Mr. Philip identified communication as problem in his research. The causes of conflicts are structural factors, authority relationships, common resources, goal differences interdependence, jurisdictional ambiguities, specialization, status-inconsistencies, personal factors, communication, conflict management style, cultural differences, emotions, perception, personalities, skills and abilities, values and ethics. The researcher found a possible solution; it is obvious that a perfect communication system is unlikely. But also perfectio n like rationality will not be achieved; organizations do have mechanism by which they can attempt the communication system as clear as they can. Philips also suggested that there are such devices available which can reduce the distortion and complications in communication process and suggested that communication recipients should be aware of the biases of the message senders and protect their own counter biases as protection devices. James M Leif John M Penrose in 1997 in the book Business Strategies Skills 5th Edition explained the nature of organizational conflicts identify the causes of conflicts i.e. Structural Factors, Common Resources , Goal Differences , Interdependence ,    Jurisdictional Ambiguities, Inconsistencies ,Personal Factors Communication barriers, Conflict management style ,Cultural differences ,Emotions Perception, Personalities, Skills and abilities, Values and Ethics, Behavioral and Physiological Cognitive. The researchers say that it is possible to avoid conflict by having mechanism such as voting to make decision without the disagreement of consensus. They also find that behavioral regulation fail to match the individual need of employee, conflict is bound to occur. In 1995 B R Siwal in his research Resolution Strategies to Conflict describes that conflict is a necessary and integral part of effective problem solving and realistic discussions. It is core sound of decision making because disagreement is the best vehicle for enlargement the perspective, discovering alternatives, and motivating creative interaction among each member. The effects of disagreement, though, depend on how it is administer by team members. Conflict can be integrative and constructive or it can be distributive and disruptive. When mismanagement occur, conflict can demolish team effectiveness, when handled well it can deeply enhance the quality of team work and make members sense proud of their work in the team. Training in the nature of conflict and the ways of managing it is an imperative need of all the people who participates in problem solving groups, such as those that make up work teams. The negative association of conflicts wants to be dispelled and substitute with more practical conceptions that made the justifiable distinction between disruptive and constructive conflict. When team members see that conflict can be a positive strength in conversation, they are better prepared to take up effective proposal attitudes and behaviors in trouble solving situations. Further more the differences between integrative and distributive conflict can help them learn how their own behavior contributes to the atmosphere of the team which they belong. Davor Dujak in 2008 describes in his research that in every organization conflict encounters on a daily basis. The conflict cannot be avoided but it is probable to mange them in a way that we identify them on time. It is essential to constantly track the organizational signals which position to their existence. If Organization does not respond accordingly, this can lead to the condition that conflict itself manages the organization. One of the more important determinants of productivity, performance and efficiency and finally the job satisfaction is also the conflict as an independent variable of organizational behavior. By systematic research of organizational behavior we want to make a positive influence on the dependents variables, but first we have to realize and get a good approaching to the individual elements of organizational behavior. In 2004 Melanie Lewis describes in her research that if conflict managed poorly or avoided, it can be very costly to an organization. If managed well, conflict presents an opportunity to uncover significance and promote a healthy work place. Many organizations are finding that their conflicts management systems have been good by financial investments, generating a healthy return. In additional they are recognizing the value of many less substantial benefits (lower turnover, increased efficiencies, improved morale and improve public relations). A precise four phased process assessment, design, implementation, operation and evaluation helps organizations design effective conflict management systems to gather the maximum benefit of conflict system. Moreover this four phased approach strongly encourages the team actually to seek to understand and incorporate the needs and interests of all affected constituency, and creates an environment in which the benefits of the system can be effecti vely communicated, implemented and administered. In 2010 De Dreu C.K describes in his research that conflict is a multidimensional with both relationship and task forms. Hence it is expected that if they change the managing type of conflicts, it will plays an important role in organizational performance. While if organization did not manage good, the conflict will plays a negative role. However the researcher discussed only two types of conflicts in his research namely affective and task conflict in order to play better role in organizational performance. After studying the reviews of different researchers our group decided that we will follow the research methodology of M Philip because they dictate information about factors which are important for identifying conflicts and understanding the meaning of conflict and how it influences the organizations internal environment in solving problems. CHAPTER # 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1: Research type: The type of research that we are conducting is applied research because it is conducted for a particular organization. Applied research is practical applicability of research tools on a particular organizational situation. 3.2: Data collection We will be collecting our data by using two sources which are as follows. 3.2.1: Primary data Our primary data is collected through conducting interviews and designed questionnaires from managers and employees of Nestlà ©. 3.2.2: Secondary data The secondary data is collected from past records of Nestlà © and books along with business articles to support our recommendations and suggestions. 3.3: Sample size During this survey we have taken responses from a Sample size of 30 which is further divided into two groups. We also conducted survey from 10 managers and 20 employees. The sampling type that we used is non random sampling technique because we want to get information from every third employee and manager of Nestlà © organization. Our survey is in questionnaire and interview form, so our questionnaires consist of open ended and close ended questions. We have conducted unstructured interviews, asked from the respondents to get more information. CHAPTER # 4 ANALYSIS 4.0: INTRODUCTION TO DATA ANALYSIS Data analysis is a practice in which the raw data is ordered and organized in order to extract useful information from it. The process of organizing and thinking about data is the key to understand what the data does and does not contain. There are varieties of ways in which people can approach data analysis, and it is infamously easy to manipulate data during the analysis phase to push certain conclusions. There are different methods for analyzing the data for example surveys, charts, frequency tables, graphs and personal observations etc. We have analyzed our data through frequency tables and bar charts. 4.1: FREQUENCY TABLE Frequency table is one of the important concepts in mathematical statistics and a good analyzing tool. A table divided into cells by category with counts for each category in each cell. It is a kind of display of a given data, in which the frequency of each data item is found. The frequency of a data item is the number of times it occurs in the data set. 4.2: BAR GRAPH A graph consisting of parallel, usually vertical bars or rectangles with lengths proportional to the frequency with which specified quantities occur in a set of data. A bar graph is a pictographic version of statistical data in which the independent variable can attain only certain discrete values. The dependent variable may be discrete or continuous. The most common form of bar graph is the vertical bar graph, also called a column graph. This type of display allows us to: Compare groups of data, and To make generalizations about the data quickly. 4.3: ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRES 4.3.1: FROM MANAGEMENT 1) More than the desired output of the employees make can be harmful to the organization? a) YES b) NO Variables Codes Frequency Yes 01 9 No 02 1 Table: 4.3.1. Graph: 2) There is a free flow of communication among the employees: a) YES b) NO Variables Codes Frequency Yes 01 10 No 02 0 Table: Graph: 3) Employees are properly informed about decision taken? a) YES b) NO Variables Codes Frequency Yes 01 7 No 02 3 Table: Graph: 4) There is a consistency among the management policies: a) YES b) NO Variables Codes Frequency Yes 01 8 No 02 2 Table: Graph: 5) Key post should be through:     Ã‚  Ã‚  a)  Ã‚  Ã‚  Direct Appointment  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  b) Promotion Variables Codes Frequency Direct appointment 01 8 Promotion 02 2 Table: Graph: 4.3.2: FROM EMPLOYEES 1) From how long have you been working in this organization?   6 months 1 year 3 years Or more than 3 years Variables Codes Frequency 6 months 01 4 1 year 02 2 3 years 03 10 Or more than 3 years 04 4 Table: Graph: 2) What kind of boss do you like to work with?   Friendly Competent Leant Difficult Variables Codes Frequency Friendly 01 17 Competent 02 3 Leant 03 0 Difficult 04 0 Table: Graph: 3) Which type of leaderships style do you like the most? Autocratic Democratic Variables Codes Frequency Autocratic 01 18 Democratic 02 2 Table: Graph: 4) How does your management is doing the evaluation among the employees? Performance base Merit base Variables Codes Frequency Performance base 01 18 Merit base 02 2 Table: Graph: 5) Which management level should be responsible for problems between employees? Choose any of the following Top level Middle level Lower level Variables Codes Frequency Top level 01 2 Middle level 02 17 Lower level 03 1 Table: Graph: Q6: How do you communicate the unforeseen problem with your manager or general manager?   Answer: Most of the respondents suggested that they like to meet the general managers directly for any unforeseen events. Q7: Do you think your organization should involve the employees in decision making? And why?   Answer: Most of employees consider that their managers are capable of taking right decisions and there is no need of involving employees. While few of them suggested that it can be a source of new and creative ideas. Q8: What can you suggest for a better management system?   Answer: Most of the employees have no idea about it. Few of them believe that friendly environment and better salaries can improve management system. 4.6: INTER ORGANISATIONAL CONFLICTS OF  NESTLÉ The nature conflicts in Nestlà © found out through the unstructured interviews and through questionnaire with the directors the managers of Nestlà © Peshawar are as follows: The first thing which found, was the lack of training given to the employees, managers said that in the organization, employees always have to work together in groups, and if some one feels that he/she cannot work within the group, then there is some problem with that employee, but at the same time managers said that it is the organizations responsibility to teach the employees how to work together in groups through proper training. They mentioned that without training the organizations might face serious types of irresolvable conflicts, which are definitely not fruitful to the organization. The second main reason mentioned by the manager of the company was the Selection Biases, manager said that selection biases may also lead to conflicts within the company, and these conflicts are normally personal as well. The manager said that if in cases the top management (directors) interferes in the process of hiring the employees, they might select the wrong person for the right job. On the other hand there may be serious conflicts going on between the managers the directors on the issues of authority and responsibility balance. Further if the manager takes big decisions like job confirmation salary decisions then, there may be conflicts, and these must be taken by the top management (directors). The manager of Nestlà © also raised the point of communications problem. They believe that every information must be communicated from their tables. If in any case any employee bypasses the manger, there may be a conflict between them. Manager also said that there is no need of any employee who bypasses the manager to access to the top management (directors). Usually the organizations do have Coordinators who are directly answerable to the top management. He said that the manager will not be able to properly deal with him and conflicts between them will arise. The manager said that young unmarried employees usually indulge in office politics and make conflicts among the employees. According to him only married and experienced persons should be provided with the jobs. Racial problems also create conflicts among the employees. Bad attitude of the manager and arrogant nature of the boss is also one reason of conflicts. The manager said that effective person but highly cooperative person would be proffered in place of an efficient but uncooperative one. The managers presented the following ideas to prevent conflicts: Contractual Jobs Hire fire system. Authority to the managers Some of them had a bit different views. Director held the middle managements capabilities responsible for the conflicts within the organization. He also said that there is no relationship between the authority and reasonability with the conflicts. He proffered the autocratic style of management in the beginning, but it should be shifted to the democratic style in the later portions. Director said that although the centralized system slows down the process of working, but it will also decrease the conflicts between the employees. They said that, if you (Employee) have to be successful in the company, then you have to become a big YES SIR. One of the director also mentioned that horizontal conflicts are more common. Super seeded persons normally indulge in making conflicts. He said that super seeded persons should be terminated in place of super seeding them. Dress code can experience the anger from the employees due to Ethnic affiliations to some dresses. Directors were strongly in favor of Coordinator, they said that a coordinator channels the communication process between the manager and the top management. He also gave the following ideas to prevent the possible conflicts in the organizations: Promotions Clear line of Authority Not more than one employee from same Regional locations and same institutions/Universities. CHAPTER # 5 5.1: CONCLUSION The Organizational Conflicts is itself not a problem, but it is a serious symptom of some factors that are usually ignored while designing the organizational structures. From the literature review, taking samples (convenience) analysis of the data gathered, some factors are identified that usually are the root cause of the conflicts. Some of these are: Ethnicity Personal Jealousy Arrogant behaviors (low temperament) Communication problems Due to the nature of the issue the responses from the top (Directors), middle (Managers) lower management (Employees) were totally contrary with each other. For this purpose structured questionnaires (covering both open ended and close ended questions) and unstructured interviews were conducted. That made the deductions possible by comparing the verbal and non verbal responses, rephrasing the same questions two-three times to check the consistency of the replies. The ethnic issue is the most important. Due to ethnicity no sampled branch has been successful in implementing the dress code yet. Even though, all the respondents favoured it. It is observed that employees belonging to KHYBER PUKHTUNKHWA are very low tempered. Their frequency of jobs switching is higher than others. It proves that they cannot work in teams and work with an arrogant manager. To conclude, who should be held responsible for conflicts, the manager is the key person who channels the communication whether upward or down ward. 5.2: RECOMMENDATIONS The current thinking should be for the maximum utilization of the companys resources and to push the power and decision making authority down the hierarchy of the organization. This can create more power and flexibility within the company as a whole. Good leaders should not have any problem in delegating power and responsibility. Disagreement with the supervisor should be encouraged as long as it leads to productive results. It is critical for the manager to get diverse work force to work well together and respect their differences. Diversity should be encouraged because it can help the organization in future to adapt to the changing global market. All problems can be prevented from happening and/or rectified, if the middle management (Manager) of the company justifies its position. Middle management plays an anchor role. Manager should be able to deal with all the employees who have different cultural backgrounds, personalities priorities. Hiring experienced and matured managers and providing them training could help the case. On job training of the employees. Open house discussions should be there at least one a month. While assigning the groups to the employees for tasks, it must be assured that all the groups are properly matched. REFERENCES B R Siwal Jeremy.Cooper.SF.FIN. Participation Observation Research Method: Analysis Participation Observation Research Method: Analysis Participation Observation Research Participant observation is a method of collecting qualitative data in social research. This method involves the immersion of the researcher in the subject matter so that it can be observed in its natural setting. It involves variable levels of involvement of the researcher on a continuum ranging from passive (observation) to active (participation). The distinction between participation and observation is based on the closeness of the researcher tothe subject matter with observation involving external evaluation and recording of events without the interference of the researcher whilst participation represents an internal view in which the researcher records views from within the group by acting, overtly or covertly, as a member in order to experience the actuality of the events. For example, in Humphreys study of homosexuals, he played an active role by acting as lookout for the police whilst the homosexual encounter occurred in public toilets (Humphreys, 1970). Although Humphreys was observing events and gathering data, he was inside the situation that occurred thus his presence had some impact on events; things would not have occurred exactly as they did had he not been present. Examples of a passive role include researchers who observe things as they happen but with no influence at all on the events that unfold, other than by their mere presence. For example, Patton describes researchers who were recording the reactions ofthe audience to Billy Grahams evangelical preaching (Patton, 2002). Their role was to record events without taking any part in the proceedings, althoughtwo researchers were so influenced by his preaching that they put aside theirnotes and joined the congregation. One of the advantages ofparticipant observation is its ability to facilitate the collection of rich information that is frequently not available from other sources (Babbie, 1995). As such, it can be used to supplement, inform or contradict theorised research and it can greatly enhance the available knowledge on a subject as a result. It can be used either as a preliminary step in a research study by which the researcher observes events as they occur in order to formulate a hypothesis for further investigation or it can be used at a more advanced stage of the research in order to test a hypothesis formed on the basis of theoretical research (Patton, 2002). It is believed to elicit real and genuine information that has not been filtered or amended by the research participants as can occur in relation to interview or questionnaire data and, as such, provides unique insights into the subjective viewpoint of the participants in the study. With observation, participants may not realise that they are being watched so they do not moderate their behaviour in any way thus the data gathered in unadulterated. It also provides richer information than interviews or questionnaires because it can take into account non-verbal interaction and behaviour (Berg, 2003). As such, it can be a valuable methodof researching the influence of structures or events on individuals andgroups. There is also the possibility that unexpected and unanticipated events will occur during the course of the observation hence its value in accessing unique data (Berg, 2003). Equally, even with more active participation from the researcher, the subjects of the research may not realise that they are being observed as it is not uncommon for the researcher to obscure their identity by posing as a member of the group or as someone who would naturally come into contact with them. For example, in studies of the way in which mentally ill patients are treated by psychiatrists and others in the medical profession, researchers were admitted into mental health facilities by posing as patients so that they could experience the reality of life within such an environment, something that would not have been possible had they announced their presence and their purpose (Winstein, 1982). As this example demonstrates, participant observation can be a way to access information from those who might be reluctant to give interviews or who would present apolicy-driven view of the subject (Bogdan, 1972). Sometimes, the only way to get around such obstacles is to gain surreptitiou s access to the environment in order to experience directly what is happening (Spradley, 1997). There are limitations to this research method. It can be time-consuming, both in terms of the actual observations and in preparing and analysing the large amount of resultant data. This may make it a less cost-effective means of conducting research (Jorgenson, 1993). A second limitation is that it tends to involve the observation of only a few examples of a particular subject, behaviour or event thus there is a limit to the extent to which the findings are amenable to generalisation (Spradley, 1997). A further criticism that can be levelled against participant observation is that it is inherently subjective as it notonly focuses on a single (or limited number) of particular observations butthat the recording of the resultant data is subject to the interpretation of the researcher (Jorgenson, 1993). Accordingly, there is a possibility of conscious or unconscious bias which is inconsistent with its appearance, particularly in relation to observation rather than participation, of an obj ective and scientific research method. This criticism is furthered in relation to participation because the researcher plays some kind of role inevents that unfold thus is not a mere passive recipient of information but issomeone who contributes to the shape and content of the resultant data (Spradley, 1993). The final criticism of participant observation that needs to be addressed is particularly pertinent to participation by the research andthat is issues of deception of the research subjects and the ethical issuesthat therefore arise. This was demonstrated in Humphreys research with homosexuals as he posed as a member of their community thus accessing data thatwould not have been available without this deception. The practice ofdeception on research subjects is one that needs to be considered carefully when weighing the balance of the strengths and limitations of this research method (Spradley, 1993). Word Count: 1000 Words Bibliography Ackroyd, D. and Hughes, J(1992) Data Collection in Context, 2nd ed., Harlow: Longman Babbie, E (1995) ThePractice of Social Research, Belmont: Wardsworth Berg, BL (2003) QualitativeResearch Methods for the Social Sciences, 5th ed., Harlow: Allyn Bacon Black, T (2002) Understanding Social Research, London: Sage Bogden, R (1972) ParticipantObservation in Institutional Settings, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press Bryman, A (1988) Quantityand Quality in Social Research, Oxford: Routledge Giddens, A (2002) Sociology,4th ed., Cambridge: Polity Press Haralombos, M, Heald, R andHolburn, M (2000) Sociology: Themes and Perspectives, 5thed., London: Harper Collins Humphreys, L (1970) Tea-roomTrade, London: Duckworth Jorgenson, D (1993) ParticipantObservation: a Methodology for Human Studies, Thousand Oaks: SagePublications Patton, MQ (2002) QualitativeResearch and Evaluation Methods, 3rd ed., London: Sage Punch, KF (2001) Introductionto Social Research, London: Sage Sarantokos, S (1998) Social Research, 2nd ed., London: Sage Spradley, JP (1997) ParticipantObservation, New York: Holt Rinehart Winston Winstein, RM (1982) The MentalHospital from the Patients Point of View in WR Gove (Ed) Deviance andMental Illness, Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Looking At The Storys Behind Indian Art Cultural Studies Essay

Looking At The Storys Behind Indian Art Cultural Studies Essay I intend to do research on the Indian folk art forms, their styles, different symbols and forms as well as the context and cultural backgrounds. I will focus on MDAHUBANI PAINTINGS, a folk art originated from North India. This research will help me understand the characteristics of these art forms, which will inspire my animation story and visual style. The story of Indian art is also the story of one of the oldest and most resilient cultures on earth. Throughout its history, Indian art has combined local tradition with outside influences, and has evolved along with a civilization, which has been remarkably innovative in all areas. As in every culture, art has been a mirror of Indias fascinating history from the beginning, reflecting religious beliefs, political events, and social customs. Especially in folk arts we find a compelling and beautiful record of centuries of Indian culture. Introduction to Indian Folk Arts The somewhat lesser-known traditions of Indian painting are the so-called folk paintings dating back to a period that may be referred to as timeless. These are living traditions, intrinsically linked with the regional historic-cultural settings from which they arise. It has an age-old heritage that can be traced back to the beginning of civilization on this subcontinent [1]. It began with cave paintings, with the natural dyes so strong that they can still be seen today on the walls of the caves after centuries. The folk and tribal painting come from the remote rural and tribal regions. Sometimes the artists of these rustic works are not even educated. They lack the basic means to attend schools, and as they are gifted with such beautiful mean of expression by nature. The various painting forms coming from these regions began not just as a painting but also as a religious and social ritual performed daily. It began with painting the walls and floor of mud houses. They hide the belief that this purified the ambience and pleased the deities. Various religious and symbols were therefore seen within the painting. The term folk paintings here encompasses pictures made in Indian villages by both men and women, for ornamentation of their abodes, portrayals of their gods and for their various rituals; and, by local professional painters or artisans for use of the local people. All these paintings were produced in a variety of styles and themes. History, sociology and geography infused the painting of each region with local flavor. Their style and quality depended on the materials available in the place in which they were executed, these very factors that helps to identify the region. Folk art may be defined as the art created among groups that exist within the framework of existing society, but, for geographical and cultural reasons, are largely separated from the sophisticated and cultural reasons, and the developments of their time. As a result, they produce distinctive styles and objects for local needs and tastes. In folk tradition, art is nourishment to the daily life of the people. Whether he is a TAMILNADU (an Indian state) [2] potter who creates a massive terracotta AIYANAR (example in Appendix. Pic.1) or a MADHYA PRADESH (an Indian state) [2] tribal who creates PITHORA painting (example in Appendix. Pic.2), at the moment of creation, the poverty-stricken, illiterate folk, becomes a master-crafts-man who can create marvelous plastic and visual forms with a creative genius handed over to him by generations. Topography and geography too have control over the medium of art. In the case of UTTAR PRADESH (an Indian state) [2], we can find folk paintings on the walls of the houses. Whereas in ASSAM (an Indian state) [2], one cannot find wall paintings because most of the walls of the house are built with cane or bamboo. The folk and tribal traditions, consider all materials available in day-to-day life are worthy of serving as a medium of expression. In this regard, artist-writer, HAKU SHAH writ es, When a tribal touches a blade of grass, gourd or bead, fiber, twig, grain, pin, plastic button, conch shell, feather, leaf of flower, he sees through it, smells it, hears it, and therein starts the ritual of being with it [3]. Each part of the country with its own trees and plants, birds and animals, hills and dales has inspired Indian folk artists to have multiple metaphors, series of symbols and innumerable images to build a rich treasure-house of art. The following are the common stylistic characters in folk-art: Preference for simple outline and choice of typically representational lines; A simplification of colors and volumes so that shading is eliminated; Stylization of motifs to create decorative elements; and Repetition of lines, of entire figures, of dots for intensive or rhythmical purposes. Following is the list of some of the main folk arts from different parts of India Madhubani Painting Folk art of Madhubani from the Mithila region [2] of north India. There are different styles developed by different castes of the region. (Examples in Appendix Pic.16a 16h) Thanka Painting Combining the magnificent beauty with spiritual vision, Tankha is painting solely dedicated to Buddha and his teachings. These represent how the Buddhists see the universe. It is generally in eight layers with the upper most layers or part depicting a deity. The rest seven are the various elements of the universe like, fire, earth, space, water and air. Colorful and geometrical, these are many a time seen as the basis of temple architecture. These paintings are done with dedication, concentration, and passion and also with the deep religious feeling of doing something directly related with the supreme power. (Example in Appendix Pic.3a, 3b) Patachitra Painting Indian art Patachitra is a pre-Islamic form of religious art. It comes from the eastern Indian state Orissa [2]. Hindu gods and goddesses and other mythological scenes are painted on a leather-like surface made of several layers of old cotton glued together. (Example in Appendix Pic.4a, 4b) Kalamkari Painting Kalamkari Literally meaning pen-work, it is the religious painting on cloth with blocks and wax resist, from the temple town of KALAHASTHI in southeast ANDHRA PRADESH [2]. (Example in Appendix Pic.5a, 5b) Warli Painting Warli is a tribal community from MAHARASHTRA, India [2]. They have made a significant contribution to the heritage of Indian tribal art. Done by both men and women, these art works show their dedication to the nature and the superpower. (Example in Appendix Pic.6a, 6b) Gond Painting Tribal painting, Gond is a freehand expression of the Gond tribes of MADHYA PRADESH, India [2]. Painted freehand, these two dimensional paintings reflect their perception of life. The third dimension, the depth is always lacking in these paintings reflecting the simplicity of the artist. Sometimes these paintings also tell how colorful their imagination can be. They put colors to the blandest creations of the nature at times. (Example in Appendix Pic.7a, 7b) Batik Painting Batik, wax resist painting from WEST BENGAL, India [2]. Meaning wax-painting in Javanese, it originated in Indonesia and later revived in WEST BENGAL, India. The creativity of the talented dyers has given it a fresh new definition. The principle of batik is a simple one, wax or a similarly resistant substance such as rice paste is used to create patterns or motifs on cloth before it is dyed or colored in some way. When the wax is finally ready to be removed, the untouched cloth beneath it stands out as the original color of the cloth. (Example in Appendix Pic.8a, 8b) Miniature Painting Folk art miniature paintings inspired by the graceful romantic life style of the Mughals [4]. These paintings show one moment at a time and in minute details. The love scenes, the court scenes, various solitary women, animals, flowers all were closely observed and reproduced simultaneously. (Example in Appendix Pic.9a, 9b) Santhal Art The Santhal tribe, one of the famous tribes belonging to the Bihar state of India [2], has a typical style of painting, known as Santhal paintings. The bodies of the various forms that they paint are seldom or perhaps never in one shade, they are always striped, dotted or filled with any other geometrical pattern. They are done on a handmade paper with poster colors. The topics are selected from the natural surroundings or just from the happenings of their day-to-day lives. (Example in Appendix Pic.10a, 10b) Phad Art RAJASHTAN, an Indian state [2], the land of colors is known for Phad painting, which is done on cloth. This type of painting is mainly found in the BHILWARA district. The main theme of these paintings is the depiction of local deities and their stories, and legends of erstwhile local rulers. Phad is a type of scroll painting. These paintings are created while using bright and subtle colors. (Example in Appendix Pic.11a, 11b) Yantra Tantra art or yantra is used as an instrument or medium of focus on a deity while meditating. It is used while performing religious ceremonies. It is a graphical representation of geometrical or abstract images such as triangles, squares, pentagons, hexagons or circles. (Example in Appendix Pic.12a, 12b) Chittara Chittara, meaning picture is an expression of the village artists of KARNATAKA India [2]. Chittara is done on handmade paper. This paper is coated with mud first and then the desired color of the background is given to it by various colors extracted from the natural objects. The color red is procured by grinding a special red stone, the color black is procured by grinding burnt rice and soaking it in water for few days, mud and rice paste gives white. (Example in Appendix Pic.13a, 13b) Introduction to MADHUBANI Paintings Painting is generally done by folk artists or classical artists in three ways: wall-painting (BHITTI-CITRA), canvas-painting (PATA-CHITRA) and floor-painting (ARIPANA). Of these the wall-painting and the floor-painting are very popular in MITHILA region [2]. The Wall-painting or mural paintings, popularly known as MITHILA painting or MADHUBANI painting. MADHUBANI, literally meaning from the forest of honey is the name of the village from where comes the MADHUBANI paintings. Situated in the interior of northern India, this art is the expression of creativity in the day-to-day life of the local people. Done mainly by the females of the family, this art is regarded as a part of daily ritual. Initially all vegetable dyes were used for the paintings but today they have access to the variety of poster colors to cater to their needs and to enable them for more experiments with colors. The estimated date cant be traced back to the actual era that brought MADHUBANI art in to existence. It is however centuries old art that is associated with the normal lives of the villagers. In that region it is believed that every morning the worshipped deity comes invisibly to the household to bless the members of the family and also to bring more prosperity. So this art started as a welcome painting for deities. It started from the entrance floor and the exterior of the house. Passed from mothers to their daughters, the art of MADHUBANI has constantly been improving in its quality. As this tradition was initialized with a purpose of decorating the exterior of the house, the walls and the floor always served as the canvas. Floor-painting (ARIPANA) The art of ARIPANA or floor-painting has been handed down from generation to generation. There is not a single house in MITHILA in which ceremonies are held without ARIPANA. The women of MITHILA specialize in drawing circular patterns of designs with a white liquid paste made of ground rice mixed with water. Sometimes vermilion is also applied, besides white, red, green, yellow and black colors. In various ARIPANA designs, they have the images of gods and goddess painted on different shapes and forms with multiple colors, reflecting the artists originality and imagination. ARIPANA is an indigenous word, which means the art of drawing embankment or wall. The word is derived from ALIMPANA or ALEPANA (of Sanskrit origin) and though grammatically correct, it falsifies the real origin of the word [5]. (Example of ARIPANA art in Appendix. Pic.14a, 14b) The land and people North of the river Ganges, in the state of BIHAR [2] lies a land called MITHILA, shaded by old mango groves and watered by melt water rivers of NEPAL [2] (Indian neighbor country) and the Himalayas. MITHILA has played a noteworthy part in the political and cultural life of ancient India. It is a land full of the beauty of landscape in sharp contrast to the ugliness of poverty in which its people, most of whom are talented painters, live, who accept their fate, good or bad, and paint for painting sake. It is said that altogether MITHILA was the home where the enlightened and the learned might always find a generous patron, peace and safety, where courts were devoted to learning and culture and where poets and philosophers lived in honor and affluence. Even though women in the villages around MADHUBANI have been practicing their folk art for centuries, the world at large has come to know about these women and to consider them to be artists only in the last forty years. Even now, most of their work remains anonymous. The women, most of them illiterate, are reluctant to consider themselves individual producers of works of art and only a few of them mark the paintings with their own name. Among the first modern outsiders to document the tradition of MADHUBANI painting were William and Mildred Archer. Mr. Archer was a British civil servant assigned to the district during the colonial era (till 1947). The Archers obtained some drawings on paper that the women painters were using as aids to memory. Works that the Archers collected went to the India Records Office in London (now part of the British Library) where a small number of specialists could study them as creative instances of Indias folk art [6]. The women painters in MADHUBANI lived in a closed society and were unwilling to paint openly. Eventually due to a drought (1966-68) in the surrounding areas of MITHILA that resulted in severe economic crisis women began to commercialize their art. The All India Handicrafts Board [7] encouraged the women artists to produce their paintings on handmade paper for commercial sale. The government of India, the state government of Bihar and the regional craft guilds has all come in together to initiate the productions and marketing for these women painters. This sudden change in the form of art and its presentation has enabled the world to discover a new form of art with an enviable linkage to the lives of women [8]. The Style of painting This style of painting belongs to North Bihar. In keeping with the tradition under which it began, the style is replete with symbols of fertility like the lotus plant, the bamboo grove, birds, fish, etc. in union. The art shifted to drawing paper in the 1960s, and this brought with it a new freedom and creativity. Paper is movable and economically feasible too. Figures from nature mythology are adapted to suit this style. The themes designs widely painted are the worship of Hindu deities such as KRISHNA, RAMA, SIVA, DURGA, LAKSHMI, SARASWATI, Sun and Moon, TULSI (basil) plant, court scenes, wedding scenes, social happenings around them, etc. Floral, animal and bird motifs, geometrical designs are used to fill up all the gaps. There is hardly any empty space in this style. The skill is handed down the generations, and hence the traditional designs and patterns are widely maintained. One of the main features of MITHILA paintings is simplicity. All that is required for the artist is a suitable surface, ordinary paints, and local brushes. Preliminary sketching is hardly required in MITHILA paintings because the outlines are developed in a single sweep of the brush. Tools Used No sophisticated tools are needed in MADHUBANI paintings. Artists are still unacquainted with the modern brush. The traditional brush is made from a bamboo-twig by wrapping the twig up with a piece of cloth or by having its end frayed in such a way that the fiber looks like a bundle of hair. Color Scheme The artists prepare the colors. Black is obtained by mixing soot with cow dung; yellow from turmeric or pollen or lime and the milk of banyan leaves; blue from indigo; red from the KUSUM flower juice or red sandalwood; green from the leaves of the wood apple tree; white from rice powder; orange from PALASHA flowers. The raw materials were mixed with goats milk and juice from bean plants. Today green, blue, red and orange have been added to these colors. The colors are applied flat with no shading. There is normally a double line drawn for the outlines, with the gap between the lines filled by cross or straight tiny lines. In the linear painting, no colors are applied. Only the outlines are drawn. Some villages only produce black ink drawings. Other villages use pink, yellow, blue, red and parrot green, each paint mixed with the traditional goats milk. Impact of Hindu religion and mythology in Indian folk arts Hinduism Religion has been a definitive influence on Indian Art. Hindu Paintings featuring Hindu gods, Hindu goddesses, and the various Hindu pantheons are one of the most prominent symbols of Indian and Hindu Art. Hindu god/goddess in branding In India, manufacturers try to affect the psyche of consumer, by branding an item with the names and images of Hindu deities. They bring the premium image of a God and His virtues and associate them to their product, thus exploiting the mass recognition of well-established imagery of the God to boost product branding. The beauty of this strategy lies in the fact that the companies using Gods images do not have to be concerned about any kind of intellectual property issues like copyright, thus enjoying an immense credibility just by virtue of having connected their name to a venerated name. This kind of branding shows the popularity of god/goddess images in India and the corporate/legal freedom of their use. Manufacturers use images and names of Hindu Gods on product labels and promotion materials to attract buyers attention. Even in America some of the phone card companies like MCI, which target Indian consumers, print Gods images on its international phone cards and sometimes even t he phone card itself is named after a God. In India the largest group of advertisers are the food marketers, followed by marketers of drugs and cosmetics, soaps, automobiles, tobacco, appliances, and oil products. All of these companies somehow associate their products virtues with the virtues of a God and try to sell it to the consumer, who can very well relate to the image presented. For instance, Indian jewelers use image and name of Goddess LAXMI, who is considered the ruler of all material wealth extensively. One of the most famous names among jewelry shops in India is: Maha Laxmi Jewelers. (Examples of some Ads and products in Appendix. Pic.17a 17j) Forms and symbols in MADHUBANI Paintings The motifs of the designs include conventionalized flora and fauna, circles in series, spiral or curvilinear devices, series of short lines, foot-points of fragmentary (imaginative) pictures illustrating legends and stories, giving glimpses of environmental and natural life. While the religious paintings include various gods and goddess, the secular and decorative paintings contain various symbols of prosperity and fertility such as elephant, horse, fish, lion, parrot, turtle, bamboo, lotus, flower, PURAINA leaves, PANA, creepers, SWASTIKA etc. Besides, we also come across in these paintings aspects of agricultural animal life, which plays an important role in the rural economy of MITHILA. The animal, in fact, is a duplicate representation of energy and character of God. Thus, the subject matter generally falls into two groups: (1) A series of heavenly forms. (2) A series of strictly selected vegetables and animal forms. For different occasions, they have different forms and symbols attached to these paintings. Wedding Paintings At weddings, the following objects the sun and moon, a bamboo-tree, a circle of lotuses, parrots, turtle and fish come into prominence. These paintings draw their themes mostly from the PURANAS and epics. The most prominent image looming largest on the walls are the bamboo-tree and the ring of lotus, the KAMALAVANA or PURAINA. The focus is on fertility, and the marvelously intricate diagrams of the KAMALAVANA, the PURAINA and the forest of bamboos are, as pointed out by Archer, MANDALAS and diagrams of the generative organs. The lotus circle is not only a lotus but also the symbol of the brides sex, while the bamboo-tree is a bamboo, it also represents the phallus. (Although sometimes it is said that the women artists iconize the husbands patrilineage as a stand of bamboo.) In other words, lotus is a female and bamboo is a male. According to Archer, the latent symbolism reaches its height in the many paintings in which the bamboo-tree is depicted not as aloof and apart but as driven through the center of a clinging circle [9]. There are also minor symbols of parrots, turtles, fish, sun and the moon. In Indian context, the parrots symbolize the lovebirds and they feature constantly as images of the bride and bridegroom in folk songs and poetry. Turtles also have a significant place because they associate water with all its beneficent power with marriage, their strange shape being diagrammatic of the lovers union and their head and tail emerging from the shell looks like the exact counterparts of the bamboo plunging in the lotus. Then, there are fishes which are emblems of fertility and, finally we have sun and moon who are inserted because of their life-giving qualities. (Example of marriage art known as KOHBAR in Appendix. Pic.16a 16h) About the MADHUBANI painting Artists: Baua Devi Baua Devi is one of the most respected artists in the MITHILA community, and certainly the most successful. She lives in JITWARPUR, the village where she was born. Her work has been exhibited widely throughout India as well as the Center Georges Pompidou in Paris and at the MITHILA Museum in Tokamachi, Japan [10]. Also, at the MATRIX show at UC Berkeley Art Museum, 1997 [11] included two mural-scale paintings by Baua Devi, one depicting the life of KRISHNA, the other, a festival around a pond in a Mithila village. The scope of MADHUBANI paintings, its popularity in India and in other parts of the world MADHUBANI Painting has lately received much attention and popularity. There are quite a few websites devoted to MADHUBANI painting. I simply would like to add that the credit for bringing recent and massive popularity to this art form goes, in large measure, to the Lalit Narayan Mishra. In his capacity as the Minister for Railways in Mrs. Indira Gandhis cabinet, reproductions of these paintings adorned the coaches of many fast and super-fast trains. [12] Copies of the paintings became a hot-selling item for both native and foreign travelers. The reproductions could be found in plenty, for instance, among the hawkers in the bustling street side market along the JANPATH in New Delhi, India a must for the foreign tourist! Credit is due also to Mr. Bhaskar Kulkarni, erstwhile member of the Indian Handicrafts Federation. He was the first to organize an exhibition of this school of paintings at New Delhi in 1967 [13]. This brought instant international recognition. Folk art is having a tr easure house of symbolic language to contribute as a gift to Modern art. Folk in a sense carries the connotation of anonymity, collective wisdom, spontaneity and simplicity. With the development of Anthropology a new awareness has come into understanding the primitive and folk traditions. Anthropology has proved that regionalism in art is not against internationalism. [14] Conclusion MADHUBANI paintings are popular because of their tribal motifs and use of bright earthy colors. I would like to explore how these unique features of folk art could be successfully translated into the form of Animation. Based on my research I have these findings about MADHUBANI PAINTINGS characteristics: -The figures are recognizable by a face in profile while the rest of the body faces the front. -The face has one very large eye and a bumpy sort of nose coming out of the forehead. -The figure outlines are drawn as a double line with diagonal hatching between them. -The borders are highly decorated either geometrically or with ornate floral patterns. -Clothing also is highly decorated with geometrical, floral or even animal patterns. -The drawings of animals are easily recognized for what they are, but again tend to be very stylized. -The forms and symbols in these paintings have their own significance and different forms and symbols are used on different occasions. -There could be different interpretations of symbols and its uses. -These paintings have a limited number of colors and each color has its own meaning. Artists prepare the colors applied. -The artist uses traditional brushes (made from a bamboo-twig) for drawing. With time medium has changed. Originally these paintings were done on walls in villages. Later, the artists successfully transferred their techniques of wall painting to the medium of paper. Now most of the artists use watercolors and handmade papers. At the same time they maintain the characteristics and style of paintings although the medium has changed. In order to create a new source of non-agricultural income, different organizations encourages the artists to produce their traditional paintings on handmade paper for commercial sale. This way now it also widely spread. Even in the more recent work on paper, the themes are normally the Hindu Gods and Goddesses and stories from Hindu mythology. They exhibit their paintings throughout India as well as different parts of the world. Now with the advent of digital tools like Macromedia Flash, which can produce the similar kind of drawings using different combinations of pencil and brush strokes. Use of digital tools also makes these dr awings faster and more effectively as these paintings has lots of repetitive patterns. So we can say, transferring the techniques of wall painting to the medium of paper gained these paintings more popularity and recognition. Same way I strongly feel that when these styles and characteristics of MADHUBANI paintings will be transformed into digital medium, such as animation, it will take the paintings to the next level, where these folk art styles will be used by more and more digital artists from India and all over the world. End Notes [1] Based on the art history timeline the art produced on the Indian subcontinent from about the 3rd millennium BC . However based on the recent findings, An archaeological site off Indias western coast may be up to 9,000 years old. The revelation comes about 18 months after acoustic images from the sea-bed suggested the presence of built-up structures resembling the ancient Harappan civilization, which dates back around 4,000 years. . [2] States from India. Map of India Appendix Pic.15 [3] Thakur, Upendra, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, 1982. [4] Roy, The Bratas of Bengal, The RANGOLI or ARIPANA, KOLAM or MURGGY, as it is known in Bombay (now Mumbai), TAMILNADU and ANDHRA, is a pleasing decoration of the ground. [5] The Mughals ruled in India from 1526 to 1857. The Mughal period can be called a classical age in northern India. In this cultural development, the Indian traditions were amalgamated with the Turko-Iranian culture, brought to the country by the Mughals. [6] Gene R. Thursby, University of Florida . [7] Ministry of Textiles (Govt of India) [8] Madhubani Painting Workshop Brochure. . [9] Archer, W.G., MADHUBANI Paintings. Mumbai, 1998. [10] The Mithila Museum in Tokamachi, Japan. . [The Mithila Museum is housed in a converted schoolhouse in Tokamachi, Niigata Prefecture, situated in Japans snow country. Here approximately 850 Mithila paintings, more than 300 paintings that the Mithila artists created in Japan, Warli paintings by an aboriginal group in India, and Indian teracotta statues and figurines, are exhibited on a permanent basis.] [11] Baua Devi and the Art of Mithila. . MATRIX: August 15 through October 26, 1997 at the UC Berkeley Art Museum. [This is the first United States exhibition of paintings on paper by the Indian artist Baua Devi. The exhibition also includes a selection of works by other artists from the Mithila region of northeastern India. Baua Devis paintings explore an array of personal and mythological themes. An image, which she has come to adopt as her own is the nag kanya, or snake maiden, a creature with the torso and head of a beautiful woman and the lower body of a snake. The nag kanya resembles the snake goddess Manasa, whose attributes echo those of the key Hindu god Shiva. The nag kanya also derives from the real snakes that occupy the watery region where Baua Devi lives.] [12] Railways in North Bihar. . [13] Mr. Bhaskar Kulkarni. . [14] The Art of Folk Tradition. . References Thakur, Upendra, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, n.d. Thakur, Upendra, History of MITHILA. New Delhi: Abhinav Publications, n.d. Jain, Jyotindra, Ganga Devi: Tradition and Expression in Mithila Painting. Ahmedabad, India: Mapin Publishing Pvt Ltd., 1997. [A fine book on a leading artist who practiced what is sometimes called the Kayastha style of MADHUBANI painting.] Vequaud, Yves, The Women Painters of Mithila. London: Thames and Hudson, 1977. [A book that contributed to and then reflected the worldwide popularity of MADHUBANI painting.] Osaki, Norio, MADHUBANI Paintings. Kyoto Shoin, 1998. Shearer, Alistair. The Hindu Vision: Forms of the Formless. Thames Hudson, 1993. Aldred, Gavin. Indian Firework Art. Trafalgar Square, 2000 Prakash, K. Authentic Folk Designs from India. New Delhi: Dover Pubns, 1995. Dawson, Barry. Street Graphics India. Thames Hudson, 2001. Archer, W.G., MADHUBANI Paintings. Mumbai, 1998. Anand, Mulk Raj, MADHUBANI Painting. New Delhi: Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1984. Online exhibit of MADHUBANI Paintings. . About an Artist.. The MAITHILI BRAHMANS: An Online Ethnography.. Marketing God: About religious content on Indian television.